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What is  general study?

General study can be defined as a multi disciplinary Course drawing up and discussing content from different field of studies.

It generally touches the contents from arts and science courses in disciplines like Biology, Geography, Sociology, Physics, Chemistry, Religions, Civics, Psychology, Philosophy and Political science.

General studies puts much emphasis on nurturing important skills like critical thinking skills, solving skills and participation skills. All these are emphasized to bring betterment of life level of a learner for individual development and national at large.


General studies give a learner the following betterment as it is considered well.

  1. A learner becomes conscious and aware of all social, economic and political issues.
  2. It gives skills, experience, confidence and analytical ability to learner from the courses under taken.
  3. General studies make learner current on the rapid changing world.
  4. It improved the art of reasoning critically to a learner.
  5. It also advances a learner with knowledge of different disciplines of studies.
  6. General studies yields good and competent political leaders.
  7. It also awakes civilians in proper utilization of natural resources present.
  8. From General studies learner will develop a good creativity spirit for their betterments.


  1. a)     To promote creativity and critical thinking on decision making.
  2. b)     To promote awareness of co temporally issues affecting the society e.g. Discuss Environmental issues etc.
  3. c)     To influence patriotism and practice of good moral value.
  4. d)     To develop self reliance awareness and independent learning to people.
  5. e)     To broaden communication skills to people.
  6. f)      To illustrate individual roles, duties and responsibilities.



I. Concept of philosophy

Philosophy is the Greek word having the two words. Philo means the love of or pursuit of and Sophia means wisdom (knowledge). The simple meaning two combine word with the love of wisdom or knowledge. Loving wisdom involve seeking to know and understand about what things are in their nature reason of existence and outcome of their existence.

Wisdom is the state of using intelligence in doing anything by acting planning or thinking.

Philosophy can be defined as the rational speculation about the reality of anything existing in this world. This study involves critical thinking which is systematic on the nature of the world by giving justifications under the basis of belief correct conduct of the life.

Philosophy is the study of nature causes a principle of reality, knowledge and values basing on logical reasoning rather than empirical method. It deals with attempt to discover the meaning and purpose of existence through reflection of all dimension of thought.



(i)   Being the concept of philosophy in its meaning involves three technical explanation:-

  1. Philosophy is an activity.
  2. Philosophy is a set of mind attitude.
  3. Philosophy is a study of content body of knowledge.

In this part philosophy is said to involve questions, asking question and think about them all in the nature of all existing things in the world. The people who are concerned in this work (asking question and thinking about them) are termed as philosophers e.g. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Karl mark, Fredrick angels, T. Kennedy Kwame Nkrumah , J.kNyerere, sidhatta Gautama ,Jesus Christ, Mohammad.

The activities of asking questions and think about them are categorically put in the following area:

(a)  Synthesizing: It is providing a comprehensive view of the work, reality from questionings and critically thinking on the question. Example saying biology is study of living things or geography is a study of environment.

(b)  Speculation: It is thinking beyond what can be demonstrated physically e.g. talking of shape and sex of god and Gods.

(c)  Prescription: It is establishing a norms, standard, conducts and ethics when performing or approaching a given philosophical idea. it also involves thinking.

(d)  Analysis : It is critical examination of the words to use in communication when operating given philosophical idea.

(ii) Philosophy is a set of mind attitude speculation of what is reality and the nature of the world, start first with the idea develop in active mind. Therefore the first need of a person to have an active mind that will bring to development of new philosophical   idea is commitment ,self awareness ,desire of completeness in work and desire of speculator examination of phenomena (wishing to go deep in understanding of reality). Allowing that to happen our mind needs flexibility and openness so as to allow the new ideas that might be philosophical when examines.

(iii) Philosophy is a study of content, philosophy is found so since, and it deals with the areas of asking question and forming the answer on what in conjunction with giving justification on the nature of reality. It is a body of knowledge. Philosophy is the study of the following content.

–   What is reality? (metaphysics).

–   What is nature of the truth of knowledge?(epistemology)(theology).

–   What is value? (Axiology).

–   Rational critical thesis reasoning (wisdom) logic.


Philosophy can be traced back to the period when man started to speculate the physical as well as the mans’ physical phenomenon in the universe. philosophy started  with wondering or curiosity. that is why it is called search of wisdom.
philosophy started  with rising questions. For example “what next after a person has died? Is there another life part from the Universe life? if there is, where?

By its origin the classical period of philosophy is traced from philosophers in Anthens which is divided into four large eras.


This is the time when philosophical ideas were said to originate and initiated by philosophers like Socrates – (469 – 399 BC Plato (427-347 BC) and Aristotle

The history of western medieval philosophy is generally divided into two periods; early medieval philosophy which began with St. Augustine in mid 4th century to 13th century. The Second period was high medieval philosophy which listed up to 14th with philosopher like St. Thomas Aquinas

This is sometimes known as modern philosophy and is influenced by technological innovations. During this period new ideas about human experiences had started to gain momentam especially in the 16th century in Europe, later Asia and other parts of the world like Africa. The prominent philosophers of this period include Karl Max, Fredrick Angles, George W.F, Hegel, Lenin Kwame Nkrumah and J.K. Nyerere.

The Eastern philosophy: Broadly the various philosophers of the East Asia, included China, India, Japan and Persia. Ancient eastern philosophy developed mainly in India and China

There is no evidence about time when philosophy started in Africa. However, much like the same historical development in the field of philosophy in other part of the world, philosophy that emerged in Africa was also based on discussing the reality of things in the world.


Philosophy being an inquiry dealing with every things existing in this world, It is divided in to four branches having sub branches of specification in each as follows;


This is the branch of philosophy that attempts to study the reality of things beyond physical manifestation, it is made by two Greek words”Meta” that means beyond and “physics” that means material. In studying this metaphysics performs the speculation and synthesis activities of philosophers as the ask the question


Metaphysics does its attempts in four branches

  1. a) Cosmology:This is the sub branch dealing with the study of reality about the universe in its material, nature, origin, space period and purpose.
  2. b) Theology:The sub branch dealing with the study of reality about faith religions and beliefs in question like the nature of humanity the divine power existence of God and gods how many gods ,Satan and Angels and the relationship between man and God.
  3. c) Anthropology:The study of man as an object and subject. It answers the question who and what man is the relationship between body and mind, the evil and goods that man has, and the soul of man.
  4. d)  Ontology:The sub branch that answer the questions like the meaning of life and existence and what existence , what exists the size shape and color of existing idea etc.

This is the branch of philosophy that deals with the theory of knowledge and truth. It studies the nature of knowledge ability sources, acquisition and the validity of it in human mind. Epistemology thus shows some approaches identifying the type of knowledge and its sources.


(a)  Empirical knowledge – This is the type of knowledge obtained through experiments and experience done by sensing smelling and testing.

(b)  Revealed knowledge – This is the kind of knowledge obtained through inspiration and divine power, people are manifested to have this type of knowledge on their interpretation and prophesying ability.

(c)  Authoritative knowledge – It’s a kind of knowledge obtained from personal authority and experts in something it may be connected to actual practices and authorities in social lives to vise elders.

(d)  Rational knowledge – This is the type of knowledge obtained from critical and rational reasoning on something existing. It involves the power of thought and judgement of materials.

(e)  Intuitive knowledge – It’s the kind of knowledge derived from the instances of intuition (knowing something without going through sensory perception or reasoning).



This is the branch of philosophy dealing with the general theory of values. It answers the questions on what good and bad values in connection  with its judgement association with the human mind on how appreciate them. Their justified in two aspects.


The part of axiology that studied and analyses the moral values it identified the right and wrong conducts together with its nature in human behaviors.


Is the aspect of dealing with creation and principle of art and beauty, It studies human feelings, thoughts and attitudes on how he appreciates what is seen beautiful. Aesthetic the principle of beauty its nature and how beauty is made.


Is the fourth branch of philosophy that deals with the principles and methods of correct reasoning, it explores how we can distinguish the rational or logic thoughts and irrational thoughts.

There are two methods of reasoning

(a)  Deductive reasoning.

Is the form of reasoning general premises of something to specific idea or thought in this form a conclusion is reached through the method of demonstration.

(b)  Inductive reasoning

This is the form of reasoning whereby a conclusion is reached by using premises from specific to general, in this approach one is forced to accept the conclusion through given premises.

Importance of logic to man
(i) Logic investigates how argument are formed
(ii) Logic examines argument in any language, in order to make a distinction between correct and incorrect reasoning.


(i) Philosophy enables people to generate principles and norms of conduct for example there are several norms adopted in some social institutions like churches, schools e.c.t

(ii) Philosophy helps to enhance an understanding about the existence of man in the world through speculations.
(iii) Philosophy develops curiosity among people in critical thinking. Through critical thinking a person can apply deep logical and analytical process of material to get the reality
(iv) Philosophy encourages the love of work and responsibility of the people in the society.
e.g. Philosophy  of socialism and self-reliance in Tanzania advocated by J.K.Nyerere encouraged equality and hard working
(v) Philosophy is regarded as the core mother of all other subject in the world.
(vi) Philosophy has been used to boost social services such as Education. Different Philosophers have been surveyed to be used in the field of Education (Education for self reliance


Philosophers are seen to have advocated their philosophical ideas focusing on two approaches. These are


(i)  Idealism
(ii) Materialism or Realism schools of thoughts.


This is the school of thought which emphasize the reality of anything to have been associated with the mind conscious (idea). These believe that it is only idea which is real and not material object.

The idealists suggest that an idea is the primary unit of material, the idea starts first in our minds then an object is structured and deigned to reality.

The idealists here are Plato, Hegel and G.Bekerley


It is the school of thought criticizing the idealists according to them the existence of objects depends on experience over any material and the inductively reasoning (reasoning/judging from specific to general). The materialists believe that an object is real simply because even the universe is material in nature. So by them material/object starts first then ideas are produced from the material. Philosophers here are Karl max, Aristotle, V. Lenin who is also considered to develop communism with Karl max who called it socialism.



This approach also emerged as a critique to the traditional approach that they failed to establish the frame work or their ideas and belief on the nature of reality. The modern approach developed their ideas that were said to identify the frame work of thoughts as;

(i) Pragmatism

This was the school of thought who supported the idea of scientific observation and experience in suggesting the nature of reality.

They believed that the nature of reality is an observation of experimental changes of the material rather than basing on beliefs ideas. Basing on scientific observations and experiments, the modern approach also suggest some other ideas given the existentialism, neo Marxism and Marxism which is all much focus on the reality of humanness and consideration of human being as the only unique creature in the world .


(a) The Ancient philosophers

(i) Socrates

A Greek philosopher who lived in 470BC-399BC. He developed the philosophical idea of rational (critical thinking as the only way and method of attaining knowledge). Socrates discouraged empiricism and suggested questioning and dialogue development or debated (Asking what) to give a good room of knowledge and understanding an idea or reality of something the advanced ideas were like;

–  There is only one good knowledge and one bad ignorance.

– To attain knowledge one should consider himself ignorant first.

– No man does evils willingly.

NB: Socrates believed on education, free will knowledge and virtue.

(ii)  Plato

He was a Greek Philosopher student of Socrates and writer of Socrates philosophical ideas. He developed the idealism philosophy suggesting that only ideas are real and all other things reflect the idea. Plato emphasized on the idea of real education suggestion that “A strong, just and civilized society will only be built where there is existence of a real idea of education. By Plato the Idea of real education was the bases of any developed society which is strong and civilized.

Plato classified the society to have three groups of people having different ranges in the perception and reality of education and its yields as follows:

(i) Golden boys
The group of people who are bright, having a good perception of idea of real education and its products. This group identifies all educated people, so suggest them to hold administrative positions like governors, rulers ,planners, policy makers, diplomats etc.

(ii)  Silver boys
This is the group of less bright people who can only catch some training; these can be trained to become defenders of the national interests like, soldiers, watchmen.

(iii)  Iron boys
This is group of less intellectual having poor understanding ability. These are to be trained for manual works and unskilled duties. Plato emphasized on dialogue as the better method of arriving to a good conclusion. He also suggested that it is better to suffer than committing injustice. Plato also suggested “it is only punishment that will change people who commit injustice”

The Greek philosopher Plato’s student, he developed the philosophy of using intelligence and principle to arrive a goal.
Aristotle inverted the idea of science philosophy so separated it from the rational thinking philosophy. This branch of philosophy focusing on principles, he called it metaphysics. By Aristotle, the equation of knowledge is connected to some principles and it starts from what we know or think then asking what, How and why, he also suggested the following ideas:

–  Good does not change.
–  Ethics the politics are the bases of people who are living happy .
–   Logical reasoning is important in the changing nature.

This time is identified by philosophers who attempted to put into practice, the ancient philosophical ideas and their modifications to see the validity, these are

(i)  St Thomas Aquinas
His argument was that, everything that exists has a cause. But since there could not be an infinite chain of causes back in to the past there must have been an uncaused first cause. “This is God”

(ii)St Augustine
Suggested the following religious ideas as

–    God exist in soil of very human being

–    People cannot change their sinful ways. Unless by the help of god’s grace


Karl Max was born in Troves London in 5Th May 1818 and died on 14th March 1883
Karl Max ideas on capitalism, scientific socialism and communism (1818-1883AD)

Karl Max theory of capitalism, scientific socialism and Communism can be understood by looking at his fundamental doctrines which are analyzed below as follows

(i) The economic interpretation of history
(ii) Dialectical materialism
(iii) The class struggle
(iv) The doctrine  of surplus value
(v) The theory of the socialist evolution
Lenin was a Russian revolutionary thinker born on the 22nd April 1870 and died in Jan 21st 1924
Lenin’s ideas on capitalism, scientific socialism and Communism.

Imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism
According to him, this stage had characteristics which would finally destroy itself. These include;

(i) Dominance of export of capital not goods
(ii) Concentration and centralization of production by the big enterprises
(iii) The merging of Bank capital and industrial Capital to form finance capital in which banks took up new role of lending money for and directing investment
(iv) Dominance of Monopolies in the form of cartel, syndicates and trusts.
(v) The formation of International monopolistic association which struggle to divide  the world among the capital powers

He believed  that socialism in society is always a result of revolution in which working class would take control of  government and means of production


(a) Historical background

Kwame Nkrumah was born on September 21st 1909 in Nkroful, Gold coast (Now Ghana) and led his people for the struggle  for independence from Great Britain to independence in 1957. He went on be named as life president of both the nation and his political party, until the army and police in Ghana Seized power in 1966. Where he found asylum in Guinea. He died on 1972.

(b)Ideas of Nkrumah on Socialism 
Nkrumah was Marxist who with no doubt believed that there were existence of classes and straggle in Africa said
” Nothing is father from the truth. Africa class struggle was been ranging in Africa ……..As in the rest of the world; it is a struggle between the op pressers and the oppressed. According to Nkrumah, revolution is an integral part of the world socialist revolution

(c) Ideas of Nkrumah on Freedom
Nkrumah political philosophy was based of the need for the freedom and unification of Africa
“For freedom is not a commodity which is given to the enslaved upon demand, it is a precious the shinning trophy of struggle and sacrifice.

(d) Ideas of Nkrumah on Neo Colonialism
Nkrumah urged that the Neo-colonialism  of today represents imperialism in its final and perhaps its most dangerous stage. He said
“The essence of neo-colonialism is that the state which is subjected to it is in theory independent and has all the outward trapping of international sovereignity. In reality its economic system and  its political policy is directed from outside.

(e) Ideas of Nkrumah on unity
That Africa must unit was one of his key political ideas. In 1963, he wrote a book “Africa must Unite” In his book he advocated for the political union of African states as the means to safeguard  Africans independence and the soundest foundation of economic, social and cultural achievement.

He was born in April 13, 1922 at Butiama village near Musoma to a local Zanaki chief called NyerereBurito. He was the first Prime Minister of Tanganyika and also the first president of Tanganyika and later in 1964 the first president of the United republic of Tanzania.

This is one of the most respected African freedom fighter, politician and philosopher in Tanzania. Nyerere advocated several philosophical ideas, having a visual in education as significance idea of building a strong society and civilized me:-

Nyerere philosophical ideas were: –

(i)  Socialism and self reliance.

(ii) Education philosophy.

(iii)The Ujamaa philosophy (Family hood and brother hood).

     Socialism and Ujamaa philosophy

(i)   Members has equal right and opportunity.

(ii)  All members can have peace and justice.

(iii)  People have to work cooperatively and responsibly in their organized village (Ujamaa village).

(iv)  Humanness was sensual than wealth in the Ujumaa philosophy.


  1. Education is a tool for mental liberation and it was to work for common good to promote quality.
  2. Education would address reality in life.

iii.Education would produce planner, organizer of activities and decision making in the society.

iv.Education was to produce and integrate all productive work or duties

  1. Education and  work would give meaningful, experience and accurate practice.
  2. Education should give confidence and critical reasoning to the learners.vii Primary education was to be a complete system to allow productivity.viii Primary education students were to begin at the age of 7 to allow productivity as they leave the school.
  3. Then from ignorance and impact the spirit of desire for change.

ix.There were to be adult education served or provided to people to rescue.

(Socialism and self reliance)

Tanzania living and believing in socialism and self reliance, philosophy is guided by the principle of peace, unity, work, love and equality.

i-PEACE: –

Is the absence of violence and chaos in the society due to different factors like undemocratic government or dictatorship government, injustice treatment and in equality, Peace is promoted by observing democratic principle like tolerance, Human right but it destructed multi practice of democracy by involving corruption mismanagement of state resource unevenly consideration of social needs and intensive social stratification.


The feeling of devotion to something or someone, the state of being concerned to someone’s intrinsically. Love is the root of patriotism in the country e.g. loving the wealth of the state and its proper utilization.


The sense of togetherness of people in all they do for their own betterment, unity develop justice and equality, so removing tribalism, regionalism and social classes.


The legal use of physical power and labor in doing a legal activity for personal development which is beneficial to the society and state at large,Every individual must work for his own betterment and survival.


All people are considered equal, be regarded and treated equally. Equality promotes together and cooperation in work for an improved development pressure.


Religion is a set of beliefs, faith and practices centered upon a specific super matured power i.e. God

These practices, beliefs and faith are guided by certain principles of worshiping on God or more, prayers and rituals. Religion are therefore composed of common aspects of justice devotion to God. Respect, Tolerance, faith, obedience, peace and proper morals.



Is the other term of the name God while Deism is the system of terming God in different names.


The system of believing in one God; or in existing of one God.


Is the form of faith or system of faith of opposing the existence of God. They believe in something which are different such as sun, moon, things which had nature strength.


The form or system of believe in many gods. They believe in existence of several gods having or being less than one super God termed HENOTHEIST OR HENOTHEISTER.

(v)  ANIMISM  

The form of believe that people worship the nature to have superior power.


The world is consisted of religions that are classified according to the number of adherents and their faith Religions conches be seen in the categories of;

(i)  Abrahamic Religions.

(ii)  Non – Abraham Religions.


This part identifies the religious belief developed by the descendants of Abraham. This category included the Christianity, Islamic and Judaism.

Analysis of ABRAHAMIC Religions

  1. a) Christians – 2.2 bills adherents.
  2. b)  Islamic – 1.6.bills adherents.
  3. c) Judaism – 14 mills adherents.


–  Monotheism (believes in one god).

–  Conversion of non – believers.

–  Conformity to the seven days cycle.

–  Trust in Holly scriptures

e.g. – Bible – Christians

Qur’an – Islamic

Tanakh – Judaism

–   Belief in resurrection of the dead

–  Final Judgement.

–  Divine revelation.

–   Common stories.

–   Belief in the kingdom of God on earth.


The believer is the world having different forms of beliefs and characteristics from the Abraham’s. These are such as the Hinduism, the Shinto Confucianism, Buddhism, Satanism etc

Their different beliefs are such as

– Belief in multiple Gods.

– No final judgement day.

–  No resurrection of the dead.

–  No specific days for worship etc


The non- Abrahamic religions are now connected to involve other new forms of religions existing with apposition of the old for of beliefs.



Religions ideologies and their philosophies in states are considered differently according to the nature of the state and its administration in the sense that there are some states that combine religions ideologies in state administration (Non – secular state) while there are other states that religion is separated from state administration (secular states).



Is the state or political system that separate religion from states affairs, in this the state does not consider religion to be a part as administration.

In secular state individual are free to perform their religions duties without interference of the state’s political system.



–  The system allows social tolerance.

–  Existence and exercise of human rights.

–   Its goods ground of employment.

–  It is a unit of peace and harmony.

–   Facilitates is educating people.

–  Strong interstate cooperation.



Is the system in which a state religion and political are combined together being used as part in administration for people and state.

In this system the states control and interference all religion and state welfare, in non secularism policies and religion are cooked in one pot.

Such that religion ideologies are used as the base of running political system e.g. Algeria and England.


  • The system protect the doctrine of the states ideology.
  • It helps in softening peoples mind to be ruled.
  • It create the room of unity and cooperation.
  • System promotes morals and respect of the states authority.
  • It helps in provision of social services equally by the government to its people.
  • Promotes national identity e.g. Arabic countries.
  • It strengthens the philosophy of given religion.


  • There is no freedom of worship.
  • There is an interference of the government in religion and personal issues (welfare).
  • It distorts reasoning capability.
  • It involve the dictatorship and administration.
  • Led to inferiority complex to the believers.
  • Easy violence to occur due to appearance of some classes.
  • Poor interstate cooperation.

Religion has great influence on society. Its functions can be seen through social, political and economic life


(i) Provision of education
There are many primary, Secondary School, Colleges and Universities belonging to Islamic and Christian religions.

For example: –
St. Augustine University, Tumaini University, St. John University of Tanzania and Morogoro Islamic University to mention just few

(ii) Defending  the moral quality of a society. Religion is builder and defender of the moral quality of a society.

(iii) Provision of health services through building hospital, dispensaries and health centers. Example:  Bugando,KCMC and Hindumandal
(iv) Maintenance of law, order(obedience) and thus minimizing crimes (Immoralities) in the society.
(v) Protection of human rights in the society. It strengthens equality through scriptures which says all people are equal before god
(vi) Enhancing economic development through encouraging people to work hard. Eg” If anyone will not work, let him not eat.” (2The3:10)

Political roles / Functions
(i) Religious leaders give advice to political leaders in different issues. Eg. Corruption
(ii)Religious leader provide critical to reflection on policies and public behaviors of leaders and of different interest groups in society.
(iii)Religion, Though leaders, defends the common good, the dignity of human beings, points out evil in society and reminds leaders to serve other and not themselves.
(iv)In religious states, religious is integrated in the state administration. Eg. The Islamic sharia is used as the state ideology in saudi

Religions tolerance; Is the peaceful existence/willingness of existence of religion in the state i.e. everyone has responsibility of respecting the belief of other people.
Religion and religious group must practice positive tolerance for other, and for other religious group. This necessitate the freedom of worship which is considered one  of basic human right guaranteed in most national constitutions.

It is the right of a person to follow or not to follow religion. This rights included freedom to change religion or freedom to worship in the community alone or with other, publicly a privately.

1. “Philosophy has more than two branches” Discuss.

2. Account for principles, obstacles and failures of education or self reliance as advocated by Mwl. J. K. Nyerere on education in Tanzania.

3. Discuss socialist ideas and show how they can facilitate or hinder  the social and economic development in Tanzania.

4. To what extend have the ideas of Aristotle and Plato influenced the social economic development in Tanzania.

5. Why is religions tolerance important  to a country like Tanzania.

6. Compare secular and non-secular state

7. Outline the main political ideas of J. K. Nyerere and then impact on the development process in Tanzania

8. What must be done to advance Nkrumah and J. K. Nyerere dream of a United Africa?

9. Explain why people worship in religion

10. What is the role of religion in politics and social development in Tanzania




    (a) Basic concept related to gender

Gender refers to a social cultural relationship between men and women on basis of their functions, roles behavior and social cultural attributes practiced. Discussing issues found in gender and development area. There is a need of illustrating the social systems found and lived by the societies first as:
Gender concept terms.

  1. a)  Sex: Is the biological difference between men and women on basis of their biological make up function in reproduction and nature of their behavior. This difference then brings to two sex types as male and female sex.
  2. b)Gender: is the social cultural relationship between men and women on their differences in roles, function and attributes shown between them.


NB: The difference between gender and sex is on the fact that sex is the biological difference between men and women while gender is the social cultural relationship in their difference.


This social cultural give difference to two gender type as;


Masculine Gender – Standing for male sex and
Feminine gender – standing for female sex


  1. c)  Gender discrimination: Is the situation in which one kind of sex is denied its rights and opportunities in the society just because of its being in that category.


  1. d) Gender stereotype:Is the assigning of roles, tasks and responsibilities to a particular gender on the basis of interests.


  1. e) Gender oppressionis the situation where by one gender type is suppressed by another gender because of its being of that gender. It includes harsh treatment of one sex group e.g suppressing women’s rights, burning of women’s say etc.


  1. f) Gender gap:Is a social economic and political difference in status, level of development or advancement between men and women. An experience shows that men are of higher status than women.


  1. g)  Gender inequality:Is the situation where by there is unequal treatment of gender such that one group is given more Prentice than the other.


  1. h) Gender bias: Is the positive or negative of attitude or practice of gender issues towards men and women e.g. Considering women inferior in front of men etc.


  1. i)   Gender sensitivity:Is the situation of being aware of different in role performed by women and men and the needs to be planned and obtained by the two gender.


  1. j)  Gender analysis. is a type of sociol economic analysis that uncovers how gender relations affect a development problem.


  1. k) Gender equity:Is the fairness and justice treatment balance the recognition of both men and women potential e.g. emphasizing balanced diet to both men and women


  1. l) Gender focus: Is the addressing of specific gender need determined by a specific gender. It is demonstration of gender sensitivity on the needs and privileges that men and women should get in society.


  1. m) Gender balance:Is the situation where by men and women or male and female live their opportunity rights and needs equally.


  1. It can be however generalized gender inequality in society is mainly seen to be caused by nomination of patriarchal system and its important to know that whenever and wherever this gender relation exist it is women who are affected specifically is all aspect of life.


a) Patriarchal system is a social political system which is organized and run by men, in this system a father is given the power and authority to Control the Community starting from family which is the primary Unit of a society. The patriarchal system allows men to exercise power, authority and hold higher position of leadership in the society excluding women.

The word  patriarchy is from two Greek words ‘Pater’ that means “father” and ‘achy’ means to rule. The patriarchy system is originally linked to various  historical sources of data such as Theology verses(God created Adam first then later Eve) such supporting data give strength over the existence and practice of patriarchal system in all societies of the world. Example of the manifestation of this, Men hold most high social political and economic position in states, government and other organizations. The patriarchal system has therefore brought to various gender issues, such as gender discrimination. Gender discrimination, gender inequality, uneven division of work and share gap etc.


  1. In a family a father holds all power over women and children.
  2. Women are subordinates to mean’s rule (i.e. they are dependent to men).
  3. Power is held by and passed down through male elder.
  4. Marriage is based on property ownership ( i.e. men are the subject of paying bride price).
  5. Oppression of female gender.
  6. Execution of women from authority and power over the community.
  7. In marriage women always move to their husbands family empires.
  8. Men are considered to have central authority to all organizations.
  9. Marriage to women is a social bound issue i.e. it is planned under man’s final decisions.
  10. Men are given privileges of power in directing and controlling all issues in the society.


How the patriarchal system in Tanzania influence gender relations

 Patriarchal system is a system where men are dominant and women are subordinate, men are considered to have power, ownership and control over things of value while women are considered powerless and have no or fewer ownership.


In Tanzania patriarchy has been a major cultural heritage that influences the development of gender inequality in many tribes. This has been directly or indirectly practiced in different institutions in the socialization process. These institutions include the following:

  1. The family Level

As the first socialization agent it has some negative upbringing practice which has undesirable results against gender equality in the following ways:-

(i) Under patriarchal systems, girls and boys in Tanzania grow up in households and communities that treat them differently and unequally where boys are taught to learn that they have greater social value because they are permanent members of their families of birth.


(ii) The use of offensive language against female in front of children. This makes boys feel that they are superior to girls from childhood.


(iii) Division of labor. At the family level a girl child is accorded heavier and time consuming work load compared to that of boys. For instance fetching water, cooking, washing clothes taking care of babies at home are said to be quite of a girl not a boy.

(vi) Female beatings and harassment during marital conflict. Boys are trained to be aggressive and muscular with reasonable tolerance while girls are always told to have tolerance for their emotional expressiveness.


(v) Toys for children. The notion that men are stronger than women is presented in child cartoons via mass media. A child is learning how to act through observing what message is being presented through the mass media. For example, a doll for a girl and a toy gun for a boy.


(vi) Education to boys rather than girls. Many parents are reluctant to send their daughters to school while preference is given to boys.


(vii) Males have more access to control of resources and decision making while females have no right impedance of property in patriarchal families.


(viii) Females are denied access to information technology, time to relax and socialize

2. The community Level
There are traditional norms, values, beliefs and practices that lead to gender inequality. They include the following:

(i) Initiation ceremonies: These are carried out in  some societies where by girls are insisted to be submissive to men. Hence, girls who have      undergone initiation become passive in schools and this leads to poor academic performance.

(ii) Women have no right to inheritance of property of their parents or husbands.

(iii) Women are not supposed to eat certain types of food when they are pregnant. In some societies, for instance, not allowed to eat mutton,  eggs etc. This weakens their reproductive health and affects the health of both a woman and the baby to be born as they lack nutritious food.

(iv) A girl has no right to choose her fiance. In some societies, it is the parents who decide who is to be a husband of their daughter regardless of her consent.

(V) Bride price/ dowry payment. This enslaves women and they turn out to be like a commodity bought or exchanged with another commodity. This makes their husbands to mistreat them as they think that they bought them.

(vi) Stereotyping: Stereotypes are over –generalized beliefs about people based on their membership in one of many social categories.


  •   Men are perceived as aggressive, cooperative and financial and providers while women are viewed as passive, cooperative and caretakers.
  •   Women are not regarded as important in big decisions of the community


(vii) Laws and regulations: Women are only the rulers of domestic life. For example, cooking, fetching water, caring for children.


III. Institutional Level

1. Religious Institutions


(i) Some religious doctrines emphasize on submissiveness of women to men. For example, in Islam there is provision which states that “Men are    guardians over women because Allah has made them to overstay. So a virtuous woman is one who is obedient………….. “(Quran 4:34) Also some people quote the Bible that God said to a woman “I will greatly multiply your pain in child bearing in pain you shall bring forth children. Yet your desire shall be for your husband and he shall rule over you” (Gen 3:16)

(ii) Women are denied of high leadership positions in churches or mosques. These positions are only reserved for men.


  1. The school institutions


(i) The literature used in schools portray the role of women negatively For example; women are portrayed as sexual objects.

(ii) Sexual harassment is serious to girls from male teachers. Teachers expect girls to fail while boys are considered to be brilliant. Hence, girls are not encouraged to do better than boys.


  1. The state institution


(i) There are poor government policies on women whereby most leadership positions are dominated by men while having lower percentage of women leaders.


(ii) Equal opportunities emphasized in legislation are not being often enforced.

(iii) Some customary laws are retrogressive and most of the judicial laws are customary law.

(iv) Confining women in private sphere.


Matriarchy system is the system in the society where by females, especially mother have the central role of all social political issues of the community. In this system a mother is said to have power to control and run the family however being dominant even in community issues. The societies with such a system are also termed as gynocentric society. Generally  matriarchy system can be defined as the social political formation in which women occupies the ruling power and position in the family which is the primary cell of the society.


  1. Women direct all social political and cultural issues of the community.
  2. The mother is the head of the family and all descendants.
  3. There is equity in division of roles, duties and share.
  4. A woman is likely to rule the state.
  5. Existence of woman power and say in the society.
  6. Popularity of female title and   names in social issue.
  7. Consideration of women as important figures in the society.


Impact of gender discrimination on social and economic development

Gender inequality has a great impact especially on women and poverty. Men have more opportunities to have an income, have more political and social rights than women. Women experience more poverty than men due to gender discrimination.


Following below are the impact/effects of gender discrimination on social and economic development;

  1. The inability of some mothers to meet the financial needs of their families. This has had an impact on the level of post natal care and thus on health of their children. For example, it has been researched and found that some mothers do not attend clinics if they perceive that their children’s clothes are un-presentable.


  1. Increase of maternal mortality rate: These have been an increase in maternal mortality rate. It is regarded as a key indicator of women’s unequal access to health care. Causes are attributed to abortion, toxemia in pregnancy, pre-eclampsia, post hemorrhage:  sepsis during child birth and ruptured uterus due to early marriages among girls.


  1. Humiliation and exploitation of women due to rape, forced prostitution, kidnapping of girls and trafficking of women for sexual business.


  1. Poor health to women due to, for instance, bearing many children and being over worked by productive roles, reproductive roles and community roles


  1. Disability and incapacitation of woman due to domestic violence. Some form physical violence from the husbands or male partners may range from the pushing and slapping to battering and maiming.


  1. Poor diet due to forbidding women to eat certain types of nutritious food such as mutton, eggs, etc.


  1. Poverty and misery. This happens due to denial of property ownership such as land inheritance and property inheritance, etc


  1. Lack of financial support: Most women do not qualify to get bank loans for running economic activities since they lack collateral security as they do not have access to property ownership.


  1. Killing of female babies at birth or female infanticide due to son preference.
  2. Old age abandonment or neglect due to lack of children or lack of support.


Affirmative actions towards balance gender relations (Gender mainstreaming)

Affirmative actions refer to steps taken to address gender issues in all development projects and programmes by distributing duties and responsibilities involving both sexes. Tanzania has, since independence, taken measures with a view of realizing equality between women and men by ensuring access to, and equal opportunities in political and public life including the right to vote and to stand for elections as well as the right to education, health and employment. The following are specific affirmative actions taken to balance gender relations:

(i) Lowering admission cut-off points for female: cut off points for females to be admitted at the upper secondary and higher education have been lowered. For Example, in Tanzania female candidates who have attained the minimum required grades to enter public universities are allowed.


(ii) Introduction of pre-entry programmes to female students: This was introduced in 1997 in Tanzania to address the relatively small number of female students and academic staff in the faculty of sciences at the University of Dar es Salaam. Currently, six weeks remedial or pre-entry programme benefits candidates with science background.


(iii) Gender equal interventions on Employment: There have been measures to bring about equal opportunities in employment. This has been done through development and establishment of equal employment opportunity office and putting in place the legal stipulations which strongly discourage discrimination in the Tanzania Employment and Labour Relations Act No. 6 and Labour Institutions Act No.7 of 2004.


(iv) Female scholarships and other forms of financial assistance: At the higher education level, there are various women only scholarship programmes from government and non-government sources. For example, the Carnegie Corporations through full cost scholarship programs for girls give support to Tanzania girls enrolled in undergraduate course.


(v) Enacting strict laws against negative cultural practices such as female genital mutilation: For example in 1998, the government passed the “sexual Offences Special Provision Act (SOSPA) to address fun Gender-based violation of which female genital mutilation to girls below 10 years was made illegal.


(vi) Placing women in positions of responsibility and influence so as to make them demonstrate their capabilities: for example: constitutional amendment of April 2000 allowed the president of the United Republic of Tanzania to nominate up to ten members of parliament and increased the number of special seats for women from 15% to 20% depending on the allocation made by the National Electoral Commission from time to time.


(vii) Allowing women to inherit property: For example, Land Act No.4 and the village Land Act No.5 of 1999 and the Amendment to the Land Act in 2004 improved women’s accessibility to land. Sections 3(2) and 23(2) of the village Land Act provided for the right of women to be allocated land and impose a duty on the village council to ensure maximum protection of their rights.


(viii) Setting gender specific policies. For example, Women and Gender Development Policy of 2000.


(ix) Enactment of laws against gender discrimination: For example, following the recent development in 13th Constitutional Amendment (2000) gender discrimination nation was made to be a gender issue. Moreover, affirmative action has continued to be taken to ensure increase of women in representative  bodies [the parliament and local government council] which at the moment has already reached 30%



Pandemic disease refers to a rapidly spreading disease affecting many people in a certain place resulting from a certain abnormal circumstance.

The HIV disease is deviation of the body from its normal immunity condition, HIV is an acronym of the (human immune deficiency virus).
These viruses are mostly blooded transmitted or transmitted in fluid condition, thus do attack the helper cells of the body immunity system, so causing weakness of the body immunity which gives to the incurable AIDS as a disease.


These factors are much socio cultural connected

  1. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).
  2. Raping.
  3. Blood transfusion.
  4. Polygamy.
  5. Inheritance of widow/spouse.
  6. Sharing of sharp tools like needles razor blades etc.
  7. During the child birth in breast feeding.
  8. Unprotected sexual intercourse.
  9. Early marriage or forced marriage.


Early infection of HIV/AIDS often produces no signs or symptoms it can take a year before HIV weakens the immune system whereby the following symptoms can be observed.

  1. Dry /coughing and short breathing.
  2. Red/brown/purplish color inside mouth or nose or eyes.
  3. Mental illness such as loss of memory often forgetfulness and neurological disorder.
  4. Several headache.
  5. Swollen lymph glands.
  6. Rapid loss of weight.
  7. A kind of skin cancer diseases.
  8. Pneumonia.
  9. Persistent and severe diarrhea.
  10. Sever and persistent fever.
  11. Lack of coordination in nerve and several painful in swallow.
  12. Wide spots on tongue mouth and throat.


Do not rely on this  sign to establish diagnosis of AIDS symptoms might also be similar to those of other diseases and illness of a person


  1. Loss of life expectancy.
  2. Loss of man power.
  3. Increase of orphans.
  4. Acceleration of poverty rate.
  5. Increase in government expenditure.
  6. Increase of miseries and sufferings.
  7. It stagnates economic.
  8. Leads to family separation.
  9. Exit of generation.


Government of different states have taken some steps of fighting against HIV/AIDS pandemic as the ways or measures against its spreads and effect. The following are some of ways;

  1. i)  Provision of education to people on how AIDS is spread and effect to the society at large.
  2. ii) Provision and supply of preventive medication and materials worldwide e.g. the use of condoms or supply of condoms medication.

iii) Implementation of the policy of caring of AIDS victims.

  1. iv) Establishment of NGOs dealing with HIV/AIDS precautions and prevents e.g. USAIDS, TACAIDS.
    Role of the individuals in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS
    To avoid promiscuous sexual intercourse especially with high risk people like prostitutes, commercial sex workers and people with multiple sexual partners. For sexually active people it is important to practice protected sex such as use of condoms.2. To abstain from sexual intercourse before marriage. After marriage the couples should be faithful to each other
    3. To avoid transfusion of unscreened blood for HIV. This should also include avoiding contact with human blood from other people in situations of injuries and accidents.
    4. To avoid sharing surgical and piercing instruments such as injection needles, air piercing equipment, and cutting blades. Any piercing or surgical

 cutting instrument should be property be sterilized.
5. To avoid drunkenness and other from of drug abuse that espouse someone to situation of irresponsible sexual intercourse making one vulnerable to infection with HIV
6. To have regular medical check-up in counseling and voluntary testing centers for HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. This enables a person to know his or her status so as to take precautions not to be infected, re-infected or infecting others.
7. For pregnant women, it is important to test for HIV/AIDS so as to avoid, transmitting the virus to the fetus or the baby after birth.
8. To abandon bad cultural practices like female genital mutilation, forced marriage, polygamy, etc
9. To avoid the misuse of development in technology. For example, the use of internet and other technological devices for watching pornographic pictures.

Environment is the natural surroundings of an organism which directly or indirect influence its growth and development.

These refer to complex or intricate matters concerning environment which is directly to man’s life or are critical matter occurring in the environment and seen affecting human being. This issue can be put into two categorized.

(i) Natural environment issue. This occurs naturally from the influence of nature

(ii) Artificial environment issue.

The natural environment issue are caused by nature of climate and difference force within the earth e.g. Earth quake, volcanism, Flooding, Hurricane, faulting activities are like tsunamis. The main caused issue being by human activities are like desertification, Global warming, environment pollution and some of influence disease.

Environmental components can be grouped into two areas which are BIOTIC and ABIOTIC in the sense that biotic area discusses all living things like animals, plants (flora) and (fauna) and micro organism. While abiotic stand to all non livingthings like Air (atmosphere, hydrosphere etc) water bodies, soil rocks, landforms.

Importance of Environment to man

(i)  Environment is only home of all organism ( life supporter function).

(ii) It is resourceful site for all man needs (the resources provide function) all materials for life are obtained on earth environment.

(iii)  Is the home of duties and activities (Productive function) environment support or kind of activities such as transportation, Agricultural activities etc.

Relationship of between development and environment
1. Resources from the environment provide livelihood and play different roles in different economic sectors like agriculture, mining, tourism, etc
2. Environment provides construction materials fuel woods medic, water and food.
3. Environment provides resources for human development land, minerals, forest, water
4. Development converts the environment into further usable forms. These forms alter and limit further opportunities for future development. In the process of development social, economic changes facing the human capacity of the environment to call the challenges are taken into consideration.

Rationale for studying the environmental issues.
The study of environmental issues is very important to impact to the individual the cross-cutting issue education with the intention of reducing the rate of destruction and increased rate of conservation. This is made through:

i. Getting a profound understanding of the sources nature and scale of the problems related to the environment so that it can be easy to devise some measures towards addressing these problems.

ii. Increasing awareness to people on rapid alarming and dramatic rate of the environmental degradation, man should not stay ignorant of these issues lest the problems results to the total extermination of human existence

iii. Encouraging man to use the resources so judiciously or in the rational way by relating the use of those resources and the effects that kind of use to the environment. This helps in insuring that resources are used with minimum possibility of jeopardizing the chance of existence of the future generation

iv. Uniting people from different parts in the world to consider the protection of the environment is global and collective compaign  in order to ensure free risky living of living organisms, particularly man.

Environmental issues and some solutions  


Refer to the range of organism present in a particular environmental part or ecological system, It is the presence of animals and plant species in given area of the survives.
Loss of biodiversity is the disappearance of difference species of organism due to the influence of mans activities and natural influence.

ENDANGERED SPECIES: The group of animals which are at risk of becoming extinct, due to factors that they are being few in number and being threatened by environmental changes.


  1. Is the protective cover of ground  against erosion, desertification and weathering.
  2. Habitat for wild animals.
  3. Flora bring (forest) influence the formation of rain.
  4. Maintain and preserving water bodies sources.
  5. Plant and trees are building materials.
  6. Plant gives out air e.g. Carbon dioxide, oxygen.
  7. Forest provide food and medicine.
  8. Forest modifies a climate.
  9. Forest are importance in soil formation.

Caused of loss of biodiversity

(i)  Poaching: Illegal taking of wild species to other places against the national management law.

(ii)  Exotic species: The new species introduce may being.

(iii)  Rampant bush fire: The burning of bush and forest resulting to killing of organism while some vacate the origin place.

(iv)  Mining activities: The cast and quarrying method kills the organism.

(v) Lumbering: cutting of trees for timber and wood also affect the organism occupation.

(vi) Bad fishing method: The using of blast and bombing and some other chemical.

(vii) Poor farming method e.g. over grazing lead the animal to disappear after being large is number.


Is an issue of cutting down trees in forest without replacing them, It is one of the way of exploiting forest product like charcoal, fire wood, fruits, medicine.

Deforestation might be done for different purpose like converting the forested land in to settlement land also making way for pass e.g. road, railway also pasture, Productive activities like Agriculture.

However all such activities result poor protection of forested area thus influencing deforestation completely the report show that 33 million   hectares of Tanzania has 90,000 hectares which is unprotected or deforested area.


(i)  Lumbering: cutting down the trees for wood.

(ii)  Bush fire which is uncontrolled.

(iii) Expansion of settlement.

(iv) Extension of farming activities.

(v) Over grazing.

(vi) Charcoal production.


Effect of deforestation

(i) Climatic change.

(ii) Soil erosion.

(iii) Desertification.

(iv)  Loss of natural land.

(v) Loss of biodiversity.

Halting of deforestation

(i)  Encourage forestation and reforestation programs.

(ii)  Provision of mass education on important of forest to the environment.

(iii) Control bush fire – Under setting the policy and law.

(iv) Control of slow down population growth and dispersal.

(v) Discourage shifting cultivation.

(vi) Introduction of alternative sources of energy e.g. bio-gas.


Is the conversion of a grass productive and land into desert which is non productive one as result of poor management. Desertification mainly occurred in semi arid area and about 1/3 world surface is semi arid which it predicted later on to be desert in the coming century.

The report reveals that 70% percent of the world semi arid area will be affected by the ongoing Global warming so bringing to desertification. Desertification now is approximated to take 12 million hectares of the world, the remaining part of the world are taken by water bodies and arid land.

Causes of desertification

(i) Over grazing.

(ii) Deforestation.

(iii)  Global warming.

(iv) Over cultivation.

(v) Nuclei testing and bombing.

(vi) Bush fire.

(vii) Poor forming method.


(i)  Accelerate soil erosion.

(ii)  It brings to floods.

(iii)  Loss of land nutrients e.g. nitrogen.

(iv)  Loss of biodiversity.

(v)  Decline of farming activities.

(vi) It initiates other environment problem like Air pollution.


(i)  Introduction of better farming method. Include mixed farming contour farming ,leguminous plants.

(ii)  Encouraging forestation and reforestation.

(iii)  Control population growth and disparities.

(iv)  Establishment and enactment of policies and law on land conservation.

(v) Control over grazing.

(vi)  Control of bush fires.



Is decline or deterioration of the lands ability to support life. Degradation might not necessary associate the addition of pollutant to degrade the land.

Therefore that degradation is different from pollution perhaps it is closely related in some parameters with soil erosion.

Causes of Land degradation

(i) Up down slope cultivation (it bring to easy soil erosion).

(ii) Use of agro – chemical on farms e.g pesticides ,industrial fertilizers.

(iii) Mono culture farming.

(iv) Nuclear testing and bombing.

(v)  Poor industrial sector setting(waste product).

(vi) Mining Activities.

(vii) Bush fires.

(viii) Shifting cultivation.

(ix) Over grazing.



(i) Loss of soil fertility.

(ii) It brings to formation of bad landscape.

(iii) Loss of biodiversity.

(iv) Might let to Desertification.

(v)  Deteriorate natural landscape and  vegetation cover.

(vi) Eutrophication of water bodies e.g. Mining activities.


Prevention of Land degradation
This means the contamination of water by addition unwanted substances into water bodies that may harm life.

Prevention of Land degradation

(i)  Use of organic fertilizer e.g. Manure.

(ii) Encourage biological diversity program i.e. management of natural vegetation and other organism.

(iii) Conservation of wet land.

(iv) Avoiding over cultivation and over grazing.

(v) The use of better farming method. Like contour farming crap rotation.


This means the contamination of water by addition of unwanted substances into the water.


Are the waste products  that pollute our environment components. These components are in two groups;

  1. Biodegradable.
  2. Non biodegradable.
  1. Biodegradable

Can decompose into simple element, e.g. the cow dung, dead plant sewage etc.

  1. Non – Biodegradable

These cannot decompose with simple substances e.g. plastic, gases, iron etc.


(i)  Poor sewage system i.e. poor setting of chambers direct to the dumping.

(ii)   Bad fishing method.

(iii)  Agricultural activities.

(iv)  Improper waste disposal.

(v)  Mining activities.

(vi) Cover growing settlement/poor settlement planning.



(i)   It may lead to spread of diseases.

(ii)   Eutrophication of water – over once transition of water nutrients.

(iii)  Loss of clean and safe water.

(iv) Loss of Biodiversity i.e. aquatic organism.

(v)  Food poisoning i.e. a aquatic animals and organism will also be poisoned however affect human health as then used as food i.e. fish

(vi)  Loss of clean water for organism use.

(vii)  It might bring to air pollution.



Land pollution is the contamination of the surface/land of the earth by improper imposition of waste on a land. The pollutant on land can be grouped into solid pollutants and fluid pollutants.

The   solid pollutant includes agricultural waste product, domestic disposals, coals, charcoal etc.

The fluid pollutant is likely chemical from industries, oil from moving machines etc.



  1. Excessive use of agro – chemicals e.g. pesticides and fertilizers.
  2. Improper waste disposal e.g. plastic disposing etc.
  3. Diesel and oil leaking.
  4. Bombing and nuclear testing.
  5. Hazard settlement planning and setting.
  6. Poor industrial sewage setting.



  1. Recycling of waste products e.g. plastic can be refined into something else.
  2. Discouraging poor settlement setting and planning.
  3. Control the use of industrial fertilizer i.e. use of organic manure on farms.
  4. Encouraging and promoting the use of toilets.
  5. Educating people on the importance of land i.e. environmental education.
  6. Enactment of laws and policies on proper use of land.



Is the increase in average temperature on surface/atmosphere, In global warming temperature tends to increase faster than normal, the main cause of global warming is the gases collected in the atmosphere and surrounding of the earth, gases causing global warming are such as concentrated CO, methane Chlorofloro carbons, bromine nitrogen oxide and other Chlorofloro carbons elements (green house gases).

These gases do trap the heat and light from the sun so causing concentration of heat in atmosphere, the green house gases and its element, have different ability of trap heat and light from the sun. However global warming is seen to vary in extents of its increase.


(i) Carbon dioxide emitted from burning of fossils, charcoal etc;

(ii) Methane gases.

(iii) The use of chemical fertilizer.

(iv) Destruction of ozone layer.

(v)  Constant.

(vi) Green house effect.


(i)  It result to loss of biodiversity i.e. escape, die of green algae, becomes extinct

(ii)  It influence the eruption of disease e.g. skin disease, cancer, malaria.

(iii)  It deteriorate the natural fertility of land.

(iv)  It disturb the atmospheric condition of the organism.

(v)  Melting of ice intensively decrease in snow cove.

(vi) Over rise of sea level.


Control measure of Global warming

(i)  Controlling in bush fire.

(ii)  Control deforestation.

(iii)  Discourage poor setting of gases emission from industry.

(iv) Promoting forestation and reforestation

The concept of Global warming and green house effect are closely related and they work together in affect one another such that green house result to Global warming and effect of warming are much more similar to the green house gases effect.


These gases do trap and collect the heat and light from the sun, so causing changes of temperature in the atmosphere and different from the changes on the scale.

Causes of Green house gases

(i)  Deforestation result to production of methane gases, Carbon dioxide gas.

(ii) Bush fires i.e. produce Carbon monoxide which mix with Carbon dioxide gas.

(iii) Fire extinguishing gases.

(iv) Gases from refrigerator e.g. Floride

(v) Emission of burnt oil from machines.

(vi) Aerosol sprays.

(vii) Burning of charcoal i.e. produce carbon monoxide.

Ozone layer Depletion

Ozone is the blue and very reactive gases made of three atoms of oxygen.
The combination of atomic oxygen with molecule oxygen combinations takes place.

Ozone layer, Is the region of concentration of oxygen molecules at stratosphere layer.
the importance of Oxygen layer is it protect the harmful ultraviolet sun-rays to reach the surface ground of the earth and cause effect to the living organism

Ozone layer Depletion
The depletion of ozone layer happens when the green house gases and other harmful one reach the stratosphere so react and distorting the oxygen molecule (ozone layer) causing ozone layer holes, such destruction is general termed to be cause by the ozone deplete substance (ODS)
The report shows that the ozone layer covering 90% of its protection at stratosphere has been affected to 50% to 40% of protection.

Effect of Ozone layer Depletion

(i) Result to decline of organism productivity

(ii) It increases eye catalact and blindness

(iii) It bring to Direct incoming of U.V Sun-rays to the grounding gases

(iv) Might lead to over melting of which decrease is snow cave.

(v) It bring the eruption of skin disease such cancer, black sports etc

(vi) It influence pollution of environment e.g. air pollution

(vii) It bring to climate changes.

 9. Environment hazards and catastrophes
Hazards are events that occur and when they take place they put the life of living organism in danger or at risks.
Catastrophe refers to a disaster or something that entails destruction of properties as well as environment degradation. Catastrophes are caused by hazards and they assessed in terms of damage . Hazardous events include acid rain, drought, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruption


Corruption means the abuse of power by public official for private gain. It is misuse of power position and authority for personal gain which is disadvantageous to the other side of people life.

Major types of corruption in the society.

(i) Grand corruption

(ii) Petty corruption.

Grand corruption

This is the misuse of government power for illegitimate private gain. It is also known as political corruption or action that constitute to corruption depend on the countries jurisdiction meaning that there are some action done is one country as illegal but legal in another country.

According to the global report of 2008 the grand corruption as such as the Richmond affair, Radar, BOT scandal, ghost workers, tax holidays scandal, public officials accommodation scandal etc


(i)  Richmond scandal;

The taxes base Richmond development company got is to contract with the Tanzania government that the company was to provide 100M power to the national grid 179 dollar. However the program never arises successfully while the country has already started paying such amount using a ministry.

(ii) Radar corruption

The government of Tanzania lost huge amount of money by buying a military radar for high expense of 40millions pound something of which was not expected to poor country like Tanzania , such payment and its transaction was suspected to be corrupt and mockery of justice to poor country. The radar was to be bought in 10 million pound instead 40 million pound was used.

This was firstly investigated by the British serious fraud office (BSFO) so brought a hot discussion In British government (parliament) however discussion was also held in Tanzania government through the use of parliament just after the issue globally known. From this discussion the British government was required to pay back 30 million pound which was seen to exceed the required amount of price.

However this become hard since its Tanzania official who were mostly involved in such corruption.

(iii) The BOT scandal

The BOT was seen to have misused the external payment Arrears (EPA) fund in 133 billions by paying the ghost company in the financial year 2005 – 2006 involves paying of external debt. The issue become difficult to judge having inconveniences and contradictions toward resolution due to the death of the director of BOT.


Tanzania have been losing billion of money by paying a non – existing employee (Ghost workers),the SIG(Controller and Auditor General) report shows that 2009-2010,9billions in salary were paying to ghost workers, in this 3.4 bills was paid to educating ghost workers and 42 was portrayed to health sector ghost workers the general number of this two Ghost worker reach 2900.

Public officials Accommodation
The government of Tanzania is still losing billions of money in accommodating the ministry, judges, the RC, DC (District in hotel and expensive apartment during meeting and seminar something of which is said to be misuse of money unnecessary.

The report show that 2010 – 2011 some minister were accommodated in Ubungo Plaza in Dar es salaam where the government  paying 105 US dollar per day, other were accommodate in Protean so paying 155 and 180 US dollars per day.

Petty Corruption

This refers to all form of bribes taking place in every days life in avoidance of implementing the existing rules and regulations, It mostly takes place between official and normal civilians, it is found in public administration with their people administered, Petty corruption bring much effect to an individual than the country at a specified time.

Economic effects


  1. It increase the cost in business


This is due to free planning of price by people in negotiation is applicable


  1. Economic distortion in public sector this is due to illegal investment and privatization which are much more corrupt
  2. Increase income of fake product
  3. It dates collection of Revenue e.g. Tax avoidance, illegitimate trade.
  4. Fluctuation of local commodities price
  5. Stagnant of economic growth
  6. Increase in production cost.


 Political effect


  1. It reduce the accountability of government bodies
  2. Result to in efficiency provision of social services
  3. It distorts the government
  4. It result to political instability
  5. It weaken effectiveness of laws enforcement
  6. It gives to emergence of crimes protected by authority e.g. poaching, illegal drugs
  7. Grabbing of land
  8. It diminishes the respect of government authority


Social effect


  1. It leads to poor provision of social services
  2. It lead to poor control of price
  3. It brings weak and non qualified exports in offices
  4. It lead to emergence of social class and social stratification ex-poor, moderate poor, Rich and intermediate one
  5. It degrade a human value by replacing with money value
  6. It gives to poor eradication of calamities plans, extra death, ignorance, poverty and disease
  7. It lead to retardation of development skills



The trend or magnitude of corruption in Tanzania is said to be in high involve affectation is its up and down growth experienced in different regimes/ Leadership. The report identify data obtained from 2002,2009 to 2010 revealing that the country is seen to be corrupt in all form of its administration as starting in election to exercise of power given.

This report shown that 58% of respondents declared that unelected official involve corruption, here it touches the government official and local council. Also report from CAG (controller Auditor and General) shows that not less than 30% of the government budget is lost annually in corruption, the report from sectors like the Natural resources sector of 2007 reveals that 95% of revenue from the resource ends up in pocket of politicians while only 5% goes to country Authority. Therefore most of government officials or government and country at large can be concluded so corrupt from the report identified.


  1. The power production sectors e.g. about 697 billion Tanzania shillings was lost in Tanzania.
  2. Mining sector and Companies, the government is said to have lost hundred billions to 700 billion due to tax avoidance involving corruption   in Company. E.g. in 2009 to 2011 Tanzania lost 5 billion over the sale of Celtelcompany or Zain Africa to Bhatty Airtel of India.
  3. The Judiciary sector corruption reached to 47% 2006 to 2008 where by the judges and magistrates were said to have been corrupt in judgement of 10 thousands cases corrupt in 47% of all the cases.
  4. Natural resource sectors the report of 2007 revealed politician to have been corrupt such that 90% of the revenue from the resource they were in trusted ended up on their pocket.
  5. Financial sector and Revenue, the government of Tanzania is said to have misuse the EPA fund in 133 billions in year 2005 and 2006 such misuse typically regarded as corruption.
  6. Police force or security sector, the general police and Traffic are also extremely corrupt this involves the charge in cases solving charges in criminal saving etc as the way to improve or change their low life standard from the low salaries they receive which is insufficient to run their life.


  1. Bribery;

It is an act of offering someone money or any valuable things to persuade him/her do something for you against the procedure or law. This kind of corruption is done to avoid bureaucratic procedures of services, it requires two participants were by one is giver and the other is a receiver, typical example are found in job seeking, service provision and business transportation.

  1. Graft

It is a form of corruption where by an official gain something valuable out of his/her work payment when doing his particular work. The thing that a person gets is out of his official pay/gain e.g. a politician to use its knowledge and position to grab a land to trade illegally.

  1. Patronage

It is a form of corruption of centered on favoritism where by one person consider the other one on the basis of tribe, sex, religion and regionalism

  1. Nepotism

it is a form of corruption where by public official favor their relatives for illegitimate private gain, such corruption focus much on biological relationship such as children and wives ,husband, sister and cousin .In Tanzania nepotism are found in area like BOT,TRA, high post military forces, Universities etc

  1. Cronyism

is a form of corruption in which the public official are seeing to favour their friends for private gains or benefit e.g. experience is offices to find an uneducated person holding a high post this kind of commotions is manifested person holding a high post, this kind of corruptions is manifested to have no interview, no testing special program to special people and silent recruitment.

  1. Electoral fraud,

This is an illegal interference of corrupt issue in election process such corruption may start from the election period, the counting, declaration and even in campaign.

  1. Embezzlement

This is misappropriation of funds or item in which a person was entrusted, it involve misdirection of property and money by person entrusted on such issue e.g. BOT government of Tanzania embezzled 133 billion, The minister of health and education embezzled 9 billion phantom employees. Embezzlement is indicating;

  1. Missing of documents
  2. Double/triple reduplication
  3. Delay in bank and fund deposit
  4. Holes in Accounting records
  5. Large dropping in profit
  6. Double billing to customer
  7. Disparity between account fear able and receivable
  1. Unholy allowance

It is seemingly antagonistic group aiming at making profit for private gain, this mostly happen between business man and corrupt politic siding with the religious sector e.g. if someone aside with religion in business just for informer private gain.

  1. Fictious information corruption

Is the form of given false information to people which is fictions inaccurate implementation just for private gain of its profit e.g. a politician promising an implementation of good things to his/her people without an Accurate data of clear and real implementation(it is receiving people for personal gain)

10.  Bureaucratic corruption

Is the form of corruption were by bureaucratic provide corrupt formalities in a certain issue e.g. business service just for personal private gains e.g. sign of fake contract; It involves also facilitation or speed up payment for bureaucratic processes.

11.  Data corruption

This is use of data that does not correlate to the quality of product or service expected. It is the one of the way of attracting the customer, of making a good trust for the customer, advertising the poor quality things in the frame of high quality product.

  1. Kick backs corruption

It is an official share of misappropriation. Here the official intentionally misdirects the fund of organization for the aim of receiving the share at the later distribution, example minister or political leader are locating the fund expenditure of his/her institution.

Reason behind corruption

  1. Absence of clear separation of power, the absence of specification of duties in three pillars of government may result to interference to poor implementation of duties solving a room for corruption to exist.
  2. Egoism ,the selfishness behaviour of leaders and civilians create a big room for corruption
  3. Poor government transparency , the Tanzania government is not transparency enough in showing how it rules and leads its people i.e. this gives the chance of corrupt issues to take place
  4. Absence of National ethics there is no policy or ideology to fear or respect in most of less developed countries, no ideology specified legal and illegal issue
  5. Lack of patriotism the love of our national is something invisible and in experienced in Tanzania
  6. Poor laws of combating corruption
  7. Weak leadership
  8. Moral and cultural deterioration.



  1. Establishment of the Warioba’s commission
  2. Establishment of prevention and combating corruption bureau(PCCB) this was found in 2007 with the mandate to combat and Prevent corruption under the base of laws of the country
  3. Establishment of ethics commission, this commission was established for the aim of ensuring proper implementation of public leadership code of ethics of 1995. It focus on declaration of acts that ensured a legal practices of public officials in their leadership, it also involved the revealing and reporting the ethics conformity in administrative sector
  4. Establishment of controller and auditor General office (CAG) the office dealing on Auditing and over sighting the function of public finance, was strengthen in 2007 its work is to provide an annual report on the government expenditure in all its sector
  5. Formation of public Procurement Regulatory Authority. The authority was found in 2004 being responsible is fear and transparent distribution of procurement of services and needs in an equal standard e.g. the issue of money procurement.

Weakness of the Efforts

  1. Poor involvement of civilians is debating scandals and solving
  2. Poor coordination in the Ant-corruptions bodies
  3. Poor separation of power in the government (interfering of duties in the government)
  4. Lack of patriotic leaders in the bodies of combating corruption
  5. Disappearance of trust of the government leaders by their citizens
  6. Poor implementation of policies due to weakness of government
  7. Lack of government accountability and transparency.

Control Measure

  1. Establishment of independence(Free or non – aligned commission against corruption)
  2. Upholding the restructuring and amendment of laws and implementation. (Maintain rule of law)
  3. Establishment of the ombudsman principles
  4. Severe punishment of corrupting official involved confiscating the properties, jailing
  5. Supporting and involving foreign exploration and revealing of scandals
  6. Upholding transparency in administration eg in signing of construct and in business activities


This topic has involved different concepts. Generally, it is a misuse of drug or subsistence abuse, which modifies mood, behavior in manner characterized by maladaptive pattern of use. We shall discuss the reason behind drug trafficking. According to sociologists and economists pointed out the economical factors because of its profitability and poor market for some crops grown by farmers in many countries. The effect of drug abuse to individual and the society will be discussed. They include mental illness, lost of man power and death. There are individual and community role in preventing drug abuse. Education become most preferable method of preventions, especially to teenagers who are the most affected. The rehabilitations program designed for addicts is another advice sable approach.


Drug is any substance which when taken into living organization may modify one or more if its function Drug abuse is defined as a self administration of drug for non medical reason, in quantities and frequencies which may impair an individual’s ability to function effectively and which may result in social, political or emotional harm.

Drug abuse

The word drug abuse has been defined in different ways depending on perception. Some scholars have defined drug abuse as habitual use to drug for a no-therapeutic reason. The most common drug in use include: alkaloids, apropos, cocaine, alcohol, nicotine, amphetamines, opium marijuana and synthetic. However Wikipedia encyclopedia has defined drug abuse in connection to talking a psychoactive drug to perform and enhance drug for non therapeutics or non medical effect.

Medical definition

From a website free encyclopedia, it defines drug abuse as substance abuse or harmful use; cover the physical or psychological harm the user from use. While subsistence dependence mean when an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drug despite problems related to use of subsistence. Subsistence abuse as a blanket term to include drug abuse and other things, other viewer defined drug abuse as misuse of maltreatment, or excusive use, and subsistence abuse is defined as continuous use which modifies the mood or behaviors or manner of the user.

Moreover website from Google continued to define drug abuse as the use of illegal drug or the use of drugs for purpose other than these for which they are meant to be used. If taken in large amount, drug abuse may lead to social, physical and mental problem.

Signs and symptoms

According to Wikipedia free encyclopedia, the signs and symptoms of drug abuse depending on the actually comport, drug misuse including alcohol may lead to health and social problems, morbidity injuries, unprotected sex, violence, deaths, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, mortality, physical dependable or psychological addition. Drug abusers are usually alcoholic and prone to suicide. The reason believed to cause the increased risk of suicide is the long term abuse of alcohol and drugs, causing physiological distortion of the brain chemistry, as well as the social solution .Moreover, the acute intoxication effects of the drug may make suicide more likely to occur. Suicide is also very common to adolescent alcohol abuse. Suicide in adolescent is also related to alcohol. Abuse is as also associated with increasing risk of committing criminal offences, including child abuse, domestic violence, rapes, burglaries and assaults.

Moreover alcohol and drug have a relationship with mental illness. This can occur both in the intoxicated state, and also during the withdraw state. In some cases, these psychiatric disorders can persist long after detoxicated such as prolonged psychosis or depression after cocaine abuse. Moreover, drug abuse affects the central nerves system (CNS), which determines the level of awareness or perception and sensing.

Drug Trafficking

Is the black market consisting of the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sales of illegal drug. In some cases certain drug are legally obtained and sold. Among the drug that are prohibited include cuberi. Illegal drug trade operates similarly to other underground marketing. Various drug provides specialize in a separate process along the supply chain.

Direly localized to maximize production efficiency depending of the profitability of each layer; supplier usually vary in size, consistency, organization and the chain range. Low level street dealer who may be individual, drug user themselves through street gang and contractors like middlemen-up to multinational empires that rival government in size. Moreover much Illegal trade cultivates and manufactures this product in many developing nations although production also occurs in some of the developed world.

It also refers to the sale and distribution of Illegal drug. However penalties to federal drug trafficking convictions vary according to the quality of the controlled substance involved in transactions.

Origin of Drug Trafficking

Origin in jurisdiction where legislation restricts the procession or sale of drug, most commonly psychoactive drug, potential drug buyers and sellers are unable to transact in open, only illegal drug trade remain as an option, and when such trade occur, a black market is born. Moreover the illegality of the black market purveying the drug trade is relative to geography location and the production countries of the drug market (many in South America, Far East and the Middle East

Countries) are not as inclined to put effective policies as the consuming countries (mostly the United States and Europe) are the ready market. The massive profiteering inherent to the drug trade serves to extend its reach despite the best effort of low enforcement agencies.

In the awareness of this reality the social consequences including crime, violence imprisonment social unrest of the drug are undeniably problematic. Therefore as a solution, it is very necessary to stop illegal drug trafficking and consumption of such items.

Reason Behind Drug Trafficking

Drug abuse trafficking has spread in very many areas in the world. They are various reasons that stimulated this drug trafficking.

The extremely high economics value of drug and profit margins, allure people to engage in organized crime and illegal business. Political movements needing money to finance their activities including guerilla and independent movements, such activities have mushroomed since the end of the cold war. Resulting in less revenue to fund the world powers.

The hashish production in morocco, the world’s largest cannabis producer, it is known that people in high places are involved in both the production and the trade. The smooth and organized way the trade is conducted makes it likely this situation is not only related but also may even been coordinated by the authorities.

However since it is no longer a secret that the authorities are highly involved in the trade, including the loyal family, one can wonder why European countries have relatively lenient altitude toward Morocco and King Hassan II.

High taxation was also among as the reason for drug trafficking in Afghanistan.

The increase of prevalence of opium is related to the breakdown of the superpower patronage and control. Since parties trying to take control, must ensure there is economic stability, hence the taxation of opium.

The lack of a strong government in countries such as Tajikistan has increased opium trading. Thus increased profit from opium was a deciding factor in removing subsides for wheat. Increased price pushed poor farmers to switch from wheat to poppy production which has much high market value.

On the other hand, Tanzania entertains other dangerous products like tobacco and alcoholic drinks. These are more popular and common in Tanzania, even if there are relatively more dangerous than many illegal drugs and are subjectively less pleasurable. Their production is attributed by profit motives.

High consumption of illegal drugs can be also stimulating factor for drug trafficking to major consumer countries, including the United States and Europe. Whereas the major producer countries include Afghanistan (opium), Bolivia and Columbia (cocaine).

Apart from major consumers, the market of illegal drug is massive. It is estimated that the global drug trade is over $321 billion. Exorbitant profits are created because of scarcity and risk involved. Illegal drugs found in the market come in many forms and names, such as: heroin, anabolic, steroid, marijuana opium and methamphetamine.

Big companies involved in drug abuse are the reason behind drug trafficking. Members of organized crime syndicate have advantages over other fragmented groups. They appear to have experience in violence, which is an unfortunate of product of drug trade.

Farmers also with no alternative crops are forced to cultivate opium. And government officials may not actually produce the drugs, but the compliant to the distribution and transportation of these drugs by turning a blind eye due to bribery and intimidation.

Finally the drug abuse as a business is very profitable since the market is wide open and the price is extremely huge.

The effects of the Drug Abuse to Individual and society

The loss of human resource (loss of productivity): Many people, who engage themselves in drug abuse, fail to work productively whether in farms, offices or industries.

Drug abuse can also cause health problem: including sexual transmitted diseases (ST’s),as well as social problems including sex violence, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, high mortality, drug addictions and alcoholism.

Drug abuse affects central nervous system: which produces changes in mode lever of awareness or perception and sensation. The cost to human socially and economically is very high. For example in the United Kingdom, it is estimated that the social and economic cost in terms of crimes, absenteeism and sickness is in excess 20 billion pounds a year.

Employment: a growing number of connectors are self employed and work in private groups. They contract counselors who are well trained and effective professionals, in vocational education, rehabilitation, mental health, behavioral disorder and drug abuse. However, experts in counseling programmers’ are not enough, and are even fewer in rural areas.

Other drug abuse stimulates decay of the moral value in the societies :Most of the addicts tend to separate from their family and societies, and indulge themselves in illegal act ivies like raping and sex. The war against drug abuse is extremely costly in terms of taxpayers’ money, productivity, law enforcement and unrest among the society. Some people urge that because it is very expensive to contain illegal drugs, they should be legalized.

Governments in developing countries like Tanzania are more affected with drug abuse because they do not have the financial and technical capacity. Most of victims are the youth who are the workforce. Many of them depend on their family economically, hence become to their parents and the nation at large.

Eccentric behavior

Eccentric or odd ball like deviants are recognized law breakers and are observed defined by the society as outlaws, and as disruptive and a threat to the social order. These eccentrics may be legated for several reasons. Firstly, they are petty thieves, drunkards, and lazy. Secondly, they are always on the sick list and therefore a burden to the society.

Mental illness

According to Beth B. Hess…et al, it is defined as residual deviance which is less obvious and more difficult to define or classify or diagnose.

Risks for many people who drink heavily may put themselves at risk with a range of potential health problems. Brain effects: Scientifics examination to determine how alcohol affects the developing of a brain, but it is difficult to detect the extent of damage caused by drug abuse in individual or a community.

Roles of individual and community in Preventing Drug Abuse

Prevention is an important way of solving problems of drug abuse. Citizens of all ages can be victims of drug, alcohol, tobacco, and mirrah, thus cause financial and social problems to the nation.

Drug abuse is hazardous especially to young people. It puts them at risk and is likely to be alcoholic permanently. Thus, a concerted effort to educate them is needed.

Education In general, drug prevention is demonstrably most effective among the youth. In addition to putting in place mitigation programs, education is likely to reduce the number of drug addicts, drug trafficking and unbecoming incidences, like violence, rapes and sexually transmitted diseases.

Parents have a critical influence over children aged 8 and 12 years. Their role is to change the attitude and behavior of their children in order to grow up as good citizens. The behavior change is later heightened by school teachers and the community. Well behaved children will normally shy away unlawful acts, such as drug abuse.

The strategy to curb drug abuse is to embark on health education by using the mass media. Such campaign should focus on preventing the young generation from drug use and encouraging current users to quit. However the compiling focuses on primary prevention targets the underlying causes, and therefore has the greatest potential to reduce the scope of this problem.

Secondly, primary prevention campaign will lessen the need for treatment. Media campaign has greater potential to affirm the ant-drug attitude of youth who are not yet involved in drug use than to persuade experienced drug users to change their behavior. The media has proved to be an effective tool in the war to prevent or reduce consumption of illegal drug and smoking, along with risk on behavior.

The method used is to campaign harnesses a diverse mixture of information tools: television, video, and radio, interned, news paper and other of news media to drive home information about drug abuse.

Educational school counselors provide individuals and groups with personal social and educational counseling regarding drug abuse at all levels of educational and careers.

There are many ways to contain drug trafficking and use;

  1. Disrupting the market chain of drugs.
  2. Stepping up campaigns to educate the public on the potential danger of drug abuse.
  3. Law enforcement against current users through medical screening and testing the suspects.
  4. Law- enforcement effort against elements of the apply chain through surveillances and undercover work.
  5. Providing effective and targeted treatment to dependant users.


Penalties for use and distribution of illegal drug vary widely around the world. Various contrite share decriminalized possession of small amount of these substances, countries like Canada, The Netherlands, USA, the penalty for illegal drug possession and sale vary from a small fine to long prison sentence.

Finally the international social and cultural factors are to playing a big role in the expansion of prohibited drug. People have shifted from localized consumption of opium poppies to internationalized and professionalized cocaine and heroin.

Impacts of drug abuse

  • It increases the rate of crimes.example theft, murder, prostitution etc.
  • Users tend to neglect their families, friend and responsibilities
  • It leads to low productivity in working place
  • It increases unnecessary burden to the government example drug users are crowded to the courtrooms, jails and creating burden on the criminal justice system hence cost the government
  • It results to mental disorders and makes the users relaxed, restless, un coordination and etc
  • It leads to death
  • It increases the spread of HIV/ AIDS due to the tendency of sharing sharp objects and needles
  • It leads to the increase of street children due to irresponsibility of the users to their families


Definition of the terms science and technology

Science is an organized body of knowledge derived from a systematic observation and experiment of natural condition. Science involves the extract of knowledge and skills on something through testing, smelling, touching and experiments for the sake of deriving principles and laws guiding the discoveries.

It is an organized body of knowledge based on technical, know how and why from the experiments and observation.

Technology Is the application of the body of knowledge and skills obtained or it is the application of science and the scientific methods and principles. Technology being the product of science, it gives out materials as its product. Peoples technology can be described by the tools and machines. ES Electric machines, computer ect.


–   It is science that technology is based (technology); is the product of scientific principles.

–   Technology modifies and advances science e.g. new simplified innovations.

–  Science is made science when technology is approved.

–  Science uses technology to be make science i.e. use of technological materials in experiments.
–  Technology leads to discovery of new methods that challenge scientists for new theories.
–  Science knowledge is applied to improve and even predict technologies. Eg. Flow of information



Science and Technology is said to have been around from the beginning of man’s life.

It is identified in the efforts made by man to master his environment and life as in three stages of age as:-

(i)  Stone Age: The old, middle and new Stone Age when man’s science and technology is identified in the discovery and use of stone tools (Old Stone Age). The bone and wood tools together with the discovery of fire (middle Stone Age) and the simplified or lighter stone tools in the new Stone Age.

(ii)  The Bronze Age: The stage when man’s science and technology is noted in the discovery and use of tools from the alloy of tin and copper (Bronze) the tools were simpler than those from stones and wood.

(iii) The Iron Age: The stage when man’s science and technology is noted in the discover and use of iron tools, this stage developed in about 3000years ago BC and it is seen to develop in different societies of the world as in Ethiopia, Engaruka, Uvinza, Karagwe and Ugweno in Tanzania and Sudan.

NB: The discovery of iron awakened the other game form of discoveries and innovations so brought the new face of development of science and technology in the world.

The following are the major developments is science and technology:
1. Space research technology: It is the type of investigation which involves the exploration of the space in order to obtain some information which is useful to the life of man.
2. Information technology such as the Internets, Email, Fax and comprised electronic system of communication such as television have recently developed and have helped people to transfer information very fast from one place to another within short time.
3. Solar energy technology: It is the use of energy from the sun to provide neat and generate electricity. Solar electric devices convert solar energy into electricity and man be used in radios, Televisions, water pumps. ect.

Other recent development in science and technology include the following;
(i)   Biogas technology
(ii)  Geothermal energy
(iii) Tidal energy and HEP
(iv) Information technology (IT)
(v) Wind energy
(vi) Information technology (IT)

The concept of development
Development is the improvement of quality of life and the majority citizen in a given nation and is shown by positive changes in people living standards.
The term development can be defined as the level or capacity at which the society is able to master and control the environment. It involves the improved standards of living from the low standards of inability to control environment and poor conditions of the living standards of life.

Underdevelopment: The term underdevelopment does not real mean the absence of development because each society develops in a certain pace. It is rather a comparative term. It refers to the fact that societies, the human social development has been uneven.

Indicators of development.
Indicator are measurement which show the level/degree of development a certain Society has attained. They include the following
(i) High per capital income (The average value expressed in monetary value of goods of services produced in a given country in a given time normally one year
(ii) Low mortality rate
(iii) Low rate of population growth.
(iv) Low level of labour employed in agriculture
(v) High level of employment
(vi) High level of science and technology
(vii) Maximum utilization of natural recourse.

Broadly spelling the above the above mentioned indicators can be grouped into three major indicators which are 
(i) Economic growth indicators Eg Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
(ii)Social growth indicators Eg. Mortality rate and population growth
(iii) Degree of industrialization Eg. Level of science and technology, labour force employed in agriculture.

Sustainable Development.
Meaning: It is the development that meets the needs of present generation without compromising/endangering the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs.

Indicators of Sustainable development;
(i) Development that sustain institutions, improves justice and encourages participation
(ii) Development that ensures basic needs, equality and employment opportunities.
(iii) Development that maintains genetic diversity which maximum productivity

The role of sustainable development in building quality of life.
(a) Sustainable developments leads to improved access to social to social services, improved awareness an the environment and development concerns as well as development of sensitive culture.
(b) Sustainable development leads to increased employment opportunities.
(c) Sustainable development contributes to conservation of resources. Hence, there is proper utilization of resources.
(d) Sustainable development creates awareness on how to use resources for development with caution without compromising the future generation rights.

The role of science and technology in development:-

(a) The role of science and technology in the development and improvement of modern industries and provision of social services.

  1. Improving agriculture, food and nutrition. E.g In fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides and herbicides, mechanization. There is food security because of presence of raw materials.


  1. Modernizing the industrial sector. This raises the quality and quantity of our goods in a short time.


  1. Increasing the speed used by reducing time taken to accomplish a task. Science and technology has played a great role in this .E.gThe use of tractors in cultivation makes the work to be completed fast compared to the person who uses the hand hoe.


  1. Quickening and facilitating communication. Due to the development of science and technology, communication has been quick because of improved roads, use of cellular phones, radios, newspaper and television.


  1. Increasing knowledge through the provision of advanced education using latest teaching materials. Audio – visual teaching materials such as televisions have been used to facilitate teaching and learning process. This has been used to facilitate teaching and learning process. This has influenced the improvement of education.



  1. Environmental conservation: It is through applying appropriate technology and modern methods of production. Appropriate technology is the technology which is based on using local resources like utensils such as pots as well as use of simple but useful implements and pesticides ), manure in agriculture, ashes (instead of insecticides and pesticides), crop rotation, mulching contour farming, optimal domestication as well as a forestation.



  1. Improvement of health services : This is through the use of the modern machines / equipment like x – rays, ultrasound diagnosis. Also, there is improvement of health living and working conditions preventive measures against health disorders and contemporary curative measures and vaccinations.


  1. Improving of domestic services: sciences and technology has providing modern water storage systems, modern water pumping systems and water purification. This has led to increased water supply in town ,, villages and cities.


(b) The role of science and technology in sustainable development.

(i) Maintenance of the productive capacity of the country especially where non – renewable resources such as minerals are exhausted.


(ii) Preservation of stock resources /row materials e.g Minerals, forests, clean air, etc, by use of measures like afforestation, recycling.


(iii) Preservation of the environment especially the biosphere against pollution .

(iv) Science and technology increases social and economic interation.


(v) It simplifies and facilities work in terms of speed and efficiency by using advanced devices and appropriate technology.


(c )The role of government in promoting the development of science and technology in our country.

(i) Formulation of good polices. Formulation of good policies that encourage people within in the country to be innovative and creative E.g adherence to the protection of intellectual property , motivating innovators, and special training to scientists. All these shall encourage people to engage in scientific activities.


  1. To encourage local technical crafts. E.g Some of handicraft industries led by local people are highly skilled and produce goods of high quality. They can make different materials like machine guns, fire arms, spray machineries, bird traps, agricultural tools like hoe, bush knives, etc. Tanzania should encourage these people by giving them support they require.


(iii) To encourage the use of tools which are manufactured by local people rather than encouraging foreign goods which cause stagnation to our technology e.g Vocational Training Authority (VETA) and (Small Industrial Development Organization (SIDO) produce quality goods. But people tend to ignore goods made from SIDO or VETA. Therefore, Tanzania should change this behavior.


(iv) To train as may scientists as possible . Many scientists should be trained based on practical skills of making tools instead of making maintenance and copying technology. This will promote science and technology in Tanzania since engineers and scientists will be able to make tools on their own.

(v) Tanzania has to reduce excessive technological dependence on foreign countries. This can be done through promoting and encouraging local technology which is appropriate to the people’s daily activities and encourage the use of products made by indigenous crafts men.


(vi) Motivation to scientists. The government has to motivate scientists by facilitating them with necessary capital, equipment and special care. This will help them to feel considered and hence they will stay in country instead of leaving Tanzania in search for greener pastures .


(vii) Good allocation of resources in science and technology. There should be good allocation of both budgetary funds and human resources in sciences and technology sector.


Transfer of technology

(a) Transfer of technology refers to the term used to describe the process by which technological knowledge moves within or between organizations. OR Technology transfer is the movement of scientific knowledge and methods of production from one country to another where that knowledge/method did not exist before.


Types of transfer of technology

Transfer of technology can be either internal (Domestic) or international. Internal transfer of technology is when technology moves within the country or within organizations.

International transfer of technology on the other hand refers to the way in which this transfer of technology occurs between and / or among countries.

The transfer of technology can assume various forms. It can be in goods (E.g physical goods, plant and animal organisms), services and people, organizational arrangements, or in codified in technical documents and/or through various types of training.



(b) The means by which science and technology is transferred from developed world to the developing countries .

(i) Through training nationals abroad. In this components, countries send workers abroad for the aim of increasing efficiency in work places. When they are learning, they imite several scientific knowledge and skills and bring the acquired knowledge to their respective countries.

(ii) Through importing foreign experts who come with their foreign technology. In order to import new technology, countries attract foreign experts to come and work in a host country. People who work with them observe and imitate what foreigners do. Through this transfer of technology, they imitate or gain access of new technologies. This is done by copying from creators or any other persons who perform different tasks such as operating of machines making machines, etc. here people observe and acquire knowledge and skills of performing those activities.


(iii) Through industrial espionage . This means that a person is imitating without being permitted by the owners of the said technology.



(iv) Through turn – key operations. The buyer enters into contract with a supplier, say, to build and construct or undertake a task that involves little participation of local institutions e.g KAJIMA, STRABAG, etc.


(v) Through licensing of technology and agreement which allows receipts to employ technology acquired from abroad.


(c) The advantages of relevant and appropriate technology for the development of the countries.


(i) Transfer of technology has led to the improvement of social services. Transfer of technology has helped different social services such as education, health services such as medical services to be provided. E.G Use of devices such as x – ray machines, computer and others which are used in the social services sector.



  1. Transfer of technology has influenced the availability and use of modern tools for production. Hence, there is increase in production in both agriculture and industry because these are more technologically advanced tools in production.


(iii) Transfer of technology promotes the indigenous technological base and technical capacity. This is due to the process of imitating the knowledge and practicing it.


(iv) Transfer of technology promotes the indigenous technological base and technical capacity. This is due to the process of imitating the knowledge and practicing it.


(v) Transfer of technology contributes much to the extraction of power such as solar energy instead of hydro-electric power and the use of biogas for cooking instead of using fire wood.


The meaning of the concept

The term “democracy” even in a purely descriptive sense, means different things to different people. Much has been debated on what is democracy and democratic value. Since Aristotle formulated the phenomenon called “democracy”, many philosophers have meditated and written about it with the result that much misunderstanding of its meaning had developed over the year. This confusion forced George Bernard Shaw, as far back as 1948, to propose that “in order to eradicate misunderstanding and confusion about the meaning of democracy, the leading scholar and thinkers of the world be convened and the issue be settled once and for all”. Up to this material time, however, such a postulation has not yet been realized.

Democracy is generally taken to mean “a system of government and leadership in which the authority or power belongs to the people”.


Historical development of democracy

Democracy originated from an ancient Greece whereby people exercised power directly to the government. They were making decision and opinions while directly participating in the government.

The word “democracy” therefore is derived from two Greek words which are “Demos” which means “People” and “Kratos” which means “Power.

Democracy thus can be defined as the power of the people or power in the hands of people.

One weakness of the ancient Greek democracy was that slaves and women were not allowed to participate in discussion only free born citizens took advantage of the system.

The city state population was small such that the citizen could know one another and assembles to make binding decision on the conduct of their lives.

The act of assembling to make decision through popular vote was an act of democracy. This kind of democracy is possible only within small social entities such as small towns, villages, families, etc. at the nation level it is a dream because it is impossible to assemble the entire nation to make unanimous public decisions.


Abraham Lincoln defined democracy as government of the people, for the people and by the people.


“government of people” means that the people are sovereign and that the government derives all its power and authority from the hands of the people.

“government by the people” Means that the system of government, leadership and supreme power belongs to the people.

From these concepts one can say that in a democratic state people give their consent to their representative who rule people on their behalf.


Types of Democracy

There are two major types of democracy.

  1. Pure/ Direct democracy

It is a type of democracy which involves direct participation of all adult citizen in making public decision. This is only possible when the population is small. The city state of Athens was the first historical social democratic entity to practice direct democracy. It only had population of 5000 – 6000 citizens. The term ‘democracy’ was originally formulated by the Greek philosopher, Aristotle (384-322 BC) within the context of local government, while he was researching the political process in 158 Greek city in public meeting on matters concerning the government and administration of their cities to discuss matter of general interest, to present proposal on such matter and to participate in the decision making. Hence, this is what later came to be understood as direct or participatory democracy.


Characteristics of Direct democracy

(i)                It allows the highest level of participation

(ii)             It works best in the community where citizen, have a common view of their interest and goals. For example, clan, tribes, village association.

(iii)           It is possible in the society with freedom to make its own decision

(iv)           It is possible in society with homogeneity among the members E.G. common ancestry, etc.

(v)              It can work with the knowledgeable/ well informed people who can make the right correct choices and decisions.


Advantage of Direct Democracy

(i)                Every person has a chance to express his/her feeding and views about particular programmes

(ii)             It provides quick and immediate answer to people. Also satisfaction is immediate to questions asked directly. This is because they are answered directly.

(iii)           Direct democracy enable people to think and provide their opinions immediately to the government

(iv)           Direct democracy helps representatives such as members of parliament to gather information from their constituencies so that they can send them before the national assembly.

(v)              It has been advantageous on making and discussiong by-laws in villages or hamlets and wards.


Disadvantages of direct democracy

(i)                It cannot be applied in areas where the population is very high. This is because people cannot assemble together in a small area and discuss comfortably.

(ii)             It is not easy to reach the consensus on the matter discussed. This is because every person will be trying to argue according to his/her interests.

(iii)           There is the possibility of the outbreak of conflict and misunderstanding. This is because every person will demand his/her opinions to be considered.

(iv)           It is wastage of time to most people because the meeting will make people leave their production activities untended.

(v)              Not all people attend and participate fully in the meeting. May people may attend but only few will participate fully on the matters discussed.

(vi)           There are some people who are not able to express themselves before the masses, due to this situation there is a possibility of missing valuable ideas.


  1. Indirect/ representative democracy (Liberal/ Bourgeoisie democracy)

It is a type of democracy whereby citizens elect representative who will work on their behalf. For example, members of parliament, local councilors, president, etc/.

This type of democracy originated from Europe where capitalists fought and won freedom land owners. That is why it is called liberal/bourgeois democracy because it originated from the capitalists.


Characteristics of Indirect democracy

(i)                Presence of constitution: Indirect democracy has a constitution as a body of principle laws through which the state is governed.

(ii)             Separation of power: The authority and power of the state is divided into three branches of government, namely the executive, judiciary and legislature.

(iii)           Bill of right for citizens against the abuse of power by government officials and leaders

(iv)           The rule of law: The country is governed by the laws and that nobody is above the law. The law must ensure public peace and order through settling disputed peaceably.

(v)              Multipartism: Many political parties play an important a role in the government.

Basically, all adults have the right to vote or be voted for in elections


Limitations/ Weakness of indirect democracy

(i)                Voter apathy: This is not especially among the disadvantaged people who don’t participate nor have the influence in the elections.

(ii)             Passive citizens: There are people in different sciatic who are not well informed on civics issues and responsibilities.

(iii)           Dependency: This means to follow a group or leader uncritically and reducing the value of outsiders and avoiding disagreement. This behavior present democracy because it does not acknowledge equality.

(iv)           Lack of economic democracy; Since only the minority have the great percentage of wealth, no political equality.

(v)              Democracy is not yet extended to many other civic institution. For example, the church.


Categories of representative democracy

There are three categories of democracy under which representative democracy is practiced. Namely:

(a)  Presidential democracy: It is a system of government in which supreme power (presidency) is held a representative through a popular vote as the head of state and leads all other ministers. Other republics have separate leadership status for the post the president as the head of state and the prime minister as the head of government such as India.

(b)  Parliamentary democracy: In this system, the voters select the member’s of parliament/ congress which then selects the head of the executive government who is often the leader of the majority in the parliament and thus forms the government. If he/she loses support and so give a vote of no confidence from the majority in the parliament, he/she must resign from office and a new prime minister in elected by the parliament to form a new government. For example, in France.

  • Constitutional monarchy: Is the government system elected by the people through a general election and is headed by the prime minister. The king/queen is the head of state who come to power through inheritance but who is simply a symbol of unity and has no read power. It is generally held that the king reigns but does not govern. Examples are in UK, Sweden, Japan, Denmark.

(c)  Mixed representative democracy: It is mixture of parliamentary and presidential democracies where the people elect the president but the members of parliament elect the prime minster. Example. France.


Principles/ Features/Signposts of democracy

In nay democracy regime there are ideas that most people believe are necessary for democracy to succeed. The following are some of those principles:

  1. Existence of various mass media: There should be various mass media which are not monopolistically owned by the government or any other group which give accurate information
  2. Equality: This refers to equal rights and opportunities to the people. No racial, religious, ethnic or sex discrimination
  3. Citizen participation: Every citizen participates fully in making decision in the country. For example, standing for elections, voting, being informed, protest, debating issue, etc. this system of participation checks the government from abuse of power.
  4. Political tolerance: There should be political tolerance between the minority composition parties and the majority ideas.
  5. Free and fair elections: There shouldn’t be any threats to the citizens, no corruption to the citizen and the elections should be regular.
  6. Accountability: Government officials and leaders must be accountable to the people. That is they should word for the interest of the people.
  7. Transparency in the government: People must be aware of what is happening in the country meetings, mass media press, etc also criticisms must be taken into account.
  8. Multipartism : More than one part must participate in election and play its role in the government to provide it with different viewpoints and issues.
  9. Human rights: These are values that reflect the respect for human life and dignity. Citizen have freedom of opinion, worship, speech, writing, meeting and associating with fellow citizens provided that they uphold the constitution and abide by the laws of the land.
  10. Inclusion of bill of right in the constitution: A bill of right is a list of right and freedom guaranteed to all the people in the country.

Many democratic countries choose to have it and finally include it in the constitution basically to protect people against the abuse of power so the bill of right limits power of the government and imposes duties on individuals and organizations.

11.Control of abuse of power: In democratic government officials are prevented from abusing their powers, the most of which is corruption.

Various method are used whose common aim is to limit the power of the branches of the judiciary and the executive (agencies with power to act against any illegal action by any government official/ branch.)

12. The rule of law: This means that in a democratic government, no one is above the law and every one should obey the law- i.e. the governors and the governed.

13. Economic freedom: the government allows private individuals or in association and agencies to own property. Thus people are free to choose and join different trade unions.

14. Sovereignty: It is the freedom of the government to decide and execute domestic foreign policies without interference from another country. Thus, a neo-colony cannot practice democracy, only a sovereign country can practice democracy.

15. Separation of powers: The authority and powers of the state should be divided into three branches of government that is the executive the legislature (parliament) and the judiciary (court) so that it becomes impossible for any one of these branches to monopolies state authority and power to the detriment of the democratic norms and processes.


Importance/ Advantages of democracy

  1. Accountability and good governance: Democracy gives an obligation to government officials to refrain from misuse of power and so they become accountable to the people for their actions. This ensures good governance.
  2. Equality and rights: In a democratic society all people are considered to be equally free although they may differ in intelligence, property, health etc. they have equal opportunities of participating in the decision of government and elections. This guarantees peace and harmony.
  3. Promotion of good interests: Democracy gives room for the people to develop a cooperative habit of working together as well as tolerance of their differing views.
  4. Self-government: People are more likely to accept laws, taxes and their obligation if they feel they have played some part in making decisions.
  5. Democracy ensures the choosing of useful and good leaders. This is important because the leaders represent the voters.
  6. Decision of the majority are likely to be right for their common good because they have been collectively discussed rather than those which have been made for them by a single person or by the minority.


Short coming/ weakness of democracy

  1. It is normally cumbersome and costly: In democracy it may be too slow and costly to make a decision. For instance, a referendum may have to be called to approve an international agreement and may also be called to approve constitution changes.
  2. Unfairness: The fact that a decision has been approved by the majority does not mean that it is always right. A mob can easily mislead itself even on issues of national interest
  3. Need of literacy: Democracy does not work in illiterate societies because illiterate people don’t know the limits of those in power. They make very wrong choices and decisions under the quite of democracy.
  4. Delegation of power: Democracy allows delegation of power by the people. This argument is based on the fact that after the election, the voters lose control over their representatives.
  5. Getting untrained representatives; Democracy may result in getting inefficient representatives who may neither be skilled nor trained.

Therefore, they will be incapable of dealing with technical issues and their contribution will be poor.


The role of government in the democratic process

(i)                Providing civic education to citizens. Citizens who are qualified should be encouraged to participate in election process and in policy making.

(ii)             Inclusion of bill of right in the constitution. This ensures the right of personal liberty and equality before the law, freedom of movement, conscience and expression, protection of citizens against degrading treatment

(iii)           Enhancing freedom of press. This aims at providing freedom of opinion. People should be able to express their view and find out what is happening in their communities and in other nation by using both state owned and privately owned mass media.

(iv)           Ensuring a conductive environment to the civil society organizations and promote people’s participation through them.


Local Government in Tanzania


Local governments are political and administrative agents through which development of towns, district, municipals and cities can be obtained.


Short history of the development of Local Authorities in Tanzania

The local government system in Tanzania has had a long and chequered history. The early forms of local self-government were based on chiefdoms and sub-chiefdoms, and following colonization, the British local government model of indirect rule was adopted. In the post-colonial era the local government system, starved of resources, was unable to deliver adequate services to the people. In 1972 local governments were abolished in favour of a more centralized system of government (Through the Decentralization by deconcentration process). Central government and ministries were put in charge of the administration of basic government services at the local level, including primary education and health care. However, the delivery of public services actually deteriorated under this system of feconcetration and local government were re-introduced by the Local government Acts of 1982.

While local Government Authorities were technically reintroduced in mainland Tanzania in 1984, the system was a top-down modality and local governments were tightly constrained by central government. In addition local government had lost many of its senior management and technical staff.

Central government ministries, through their regional administrative offices, were delegated strong power to continue to direct almost all aspects of the affairs of local government.


Structure of Local Government System in Tanzania

The structure of local government system can be analysed by showing the following interlinked system. Key structure are briefly shown. A detailed analysis of the structure showing how local government structure is linked to the Central Government is also presented.


  1. Prime Minister’s office

Responsibilities of Prime Minister’s officer include the following.

(i)                To guide and oversee the delivery of primary education by local Government Authorities (LGAs)

(ii)             To provide strategic leadership and technical support to council education offices.

(iii)           To support and build the capacity of Regional Secretariat (RS) and Local Government Authorities.

(iv)           To ensure that councils prepare consolidated education development plans that conform to government development goals, education policy and assurance standards.

(v)              To consolidate council plans and budgets into national Plans of action which will provide the basis for the approval and transfer of funds

(vi)           To collaborate with the Ministry of education and Vocational Training in order to monitor, review and evaluate outputs and outcomes of education plans.

(vii)         To communicate education information to all system levels and interested stakeholders.

(viii)      To produce regular financial and physical report to the Ministry of Finance

(ix)           To collaborate with other agencies in the education sector in planning and specifying national service delivery standards for primary education.

(x)              To technically support Local government Authorities in planning and implementing primary education programmes in accordance with the national services delivery standards.


  1. Regional Secretariats

The responsibilities of the Regional secretaraiat include the following:-

(i)                To carry out periodic internal audits in the Local Government Authorities (LGAs) and school to ensure that performance targets are being met.

(ii)             To guide, co-ordinate and monitor the delivery of social services

(iii)           To provide technical support to council offices


  1. Urban authorities

Town council, municipal council and city council fall under urban authorities. As at present there are twenty five urban council (i.e. five City Councils, seventeen Municipal councils and Four Town councils)


  1. City Council

Currently there are five cities, namely – Dar es Salaam, Mwanza, Arusha, Tanga and Mbeya. Member of the city council are the following:-

Structure of the city Council

(i)                Elect members (Councilors), one from each ward in the city.

(ii)             Member of parliament representing parliamentary constituencies in the city

(iii)           National member of parliament (Women) residing in a particular city

(iv)           Not more than six other members appointed by the Minister responsible for local governments from among the city residents.


  1. Municipal Council

Municipalities are towns which have a population of over 80,000 residents each.

Member of the municipal council are the same as those of town council. The council is headed by a mayor who is assisted by a deputy mayor. Both the mayor and the deputy mayor are elected by member from amongst the elected councilors. Ike a town council, the municipal council has a director who is the chief executive and serves as a Secretary to the council.


  1. Town council

The Town council is composed of councilors elected from each ward within the town, Member of Parliament representing the constituencies within the town and five member appointed by the Minister responsible for Local Government and the women appointed to the council whose number is not less than one third of Ward representatives and Members of parliament combined.



  1. District council

A district council is an administrative area corresponding to that of government administration. The district council is composed of the following:-

  1. Elected members or councilors, one from each ward in the district
  2. Three members appointed by the minister responsible for local government
  3. The member of parliament or (members of the parliament from the constituencies) within the areas of the district.
  4. Chairperson of village council elected by the districvt council. Their number is directed not to exceed one-third of the total number of elected councilors.


A district council is headed by a chairperson who is assisted by a Vice-chairperson. These two are elected by councilors among themselves. The chief executive of the council is the District Executive Director (DED). This is a government employee, not a political official


Responsibilities of Councilors

Some of the functions of councilors include the following:-

  1. To review periodically progress and performance of development programmes.
  2. To direct and control the affairs of their local government authorities ]
  3. To make decision in the objectives of their authorities and on the plan to attain them. For instance, approval of by-laws and annual budget.


Function of Local Government Directors

The director is both the chief executive of the Council and the accounting officer. Therefore:-

  1. The director performs the day to day administration of the services carried by the local government authority.
  2. The director provides the necessary advice to enable councilor set objectives and decide on the means of attaining them.
  3. The directors identify and choose particular problems, and make necessary decision taking into account the view of councilors.


  1. The Ward

The Minister responsible for Local Government has been mandated to sub-divide the area of every District, Town, Municipality or City Council into Wards, Neighborhoods (Mitaa)-in urban areas or Villages (in rural areas) hamlets or vitongoji.


The number and size of the Ward varies Council to council depending on population densities, size of the council are and geographical characteristics of the District, town, Municipality or city in question. The Ward is an administrative and services delivery and for coordinating activities of villages and Neighborhoods within the Ward. There is no elected Council at the Ward level. Instead each Ward has a Ward development Committee, which comprises of:


  1. A Councilor representing the Ward in the District or urban Council who is the Chairperson of the Committee
  2. Chairperson of all Villages within the Ward.
  3. Chair persons of Neighborhoods in the case of Urban Wards.
  4. Women Councilors who occupy special seats reserved for women in the relevant District or Urban Authority resident in the Ward.
  5. Invited members who must include persons from Non-Government Organizations and other Civic Group involved in the promotion and development of the Ward (but without voting right )


The function of the Ward Development Committee include:-

  1. Promotion, establishment and development of cooperative enterprises and activities within the Ward.
  2. Initiation and formulation of any task, venture or enterprises designed to ensure the welfare and well-being of Ward rsidents.
  3. Supervision and coordination of the implementation of Council project and programmes
  4. Planning and coordination of activities of, and rendering assistance and advice to the residents of the Ward engaged in any activity or industry of any kind.
  5. Formulation and submission to the Village councils or to the District/urban councils of proposals for the making of by-laws in relation to the affairs of the Ward.
  6. Monitoring revenue collection.
  7. Initiating and promoting participatory development in the Ward
  8. Supervision of all funds established and entrusted in the Ward
  9. Managing disaster and environment related activities
  10. Promotion of gender issues.


Where any scheme or programe for the development of the Ward has been approved by the council Chief Executive or by the Village councils concerned, the Ward development committee is required to inform all person within the Ward area about the scheme or programme and the date, time or place upon which the Ward residents will report in order to participate in its implementation.


The funds and resources of the Ward development committee consist of such sum as may be determined and appropriated by the district or urban council.


  1. The Neighbourhood (Mtaa)

In the urban areas the lowest unit of government is the “Mtaa” or Neighbourhood Section 14(3) of the Local government (Urban authorities) Act no. 8 of 1982 stipulates that the area of an urban Ward shall be divided into Neighbourhood (“Mitaa”) consisting of a number of households, which the urban authority may determine. Every Neighbourhood (Mtaa) has a chairperson who is elected by a Neighbourhood (Mtaa) electoral meeting of all adult member of Neighbourhood (Mtaa) and who may be moved from office by the decision of a simple majority of such members subject to procedures prescribed by the Minister responsible for Local government.


The “Mtaa” Chairperson is required to convene a meeting of Mtaa Assembly at least once in every two months and therefore to submit the minute of the meeting to the waard development committee


Every “Mtaa” has aMtaa committee of not more than six members (of whom at least two should be women) elected from amongst residents of the “Mtaa” in accordance with procedures as may be prescribed by the Minister responsible for Local Government.


The functions of the mtaa committee are:

  1. To implement Council Policies
  2. To advise the Council on matter relating to development plans and activities of the Mtaa.
  3. To advise the Ward development committee on matter relating to peace and security in the Mtaa.
  4. To keep proper record of residents of the Mtaa and a record of other particulars relating to the development of the Mtaa is general.
  5. To do such other things as may be conferred upon it by the Ward Development committee.


The “Mtaa” chairperson is part from chairing “Mtaa” Assembly and “Mtaa” committee meeting required:

  1. To supervise peace and security activities in the “Mtaa”
  2. To arbitrate on minor conflicts amongst “Mtaa” resident which do not warrant to be referred to the Ward Tribunal nor the courts
  3. To sensitise “Mtaa” residents to pay Council taxes
  4. To ensure genral cleanliness in the “Mtaa”
  5. To cooperate with the Urban council in abatement of nuisances
  6. To follow up and ensure that every school going age child gets a place and attends classes as required.
  7. To sensitise “Mtaa” residents to participate in developmental activities through self-help
  8. To perform such other function as may be determined by the Urban council.


  1. The Village

The Registrar of Villages in the Ministry responsible for Local government may register an area as a Village where he/she is satisfied that not less than 250 homesteads have settled and made their homes within any area of mainland Tanzania, and that boundaries of that area can be particularly defined. The Minister responsible for Local government may authorize two or more areas to be registered as a single Village and, also autholize the registration of an area as a Village notwithstanding that there are less than the prescribed numbers of households within the area.


Two major organs have been created at village level. The Village Assembly is composed of all adult persons ordinarily resident in the village. The village council comprises of not less than fifteen but not more than twenty –five members (of whom women make at least 25%) elected every 5 years by the village Assembly. The election of the village Council is conducted in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Minister responsible for Local Government matter. No person can be elected as a member of the village council, unless;

  1. He/she has attained the apparent age of 21 years
  2. He/she is a member of a household within the village and is ordinarily resident in the village
  3. He/she is able to read and write in Kiswahili or English.
  4. He/she has a lawful means of livelihood.


The Village Council may, by resolution supported by two thirds of the members, remove the chairperson from office.


A Village Assembly is the supreme authority on all matters of general policy making in relation to the affairs of the village, and as such it is responsible for the election of the Village Council and its removal from Office. The Village Assembly meets once in every three months and may hold an extraordinary meeting whenever there is an urgent issue to be resolved. The function of the village assembly are as follows:

  1. To receive and deliberate on implementation reports submitted by the village Council.
  2. To receive and deliberate on revenue and expenditure reports since the last meeting.
  3. To receive and deliberate on by-laws proposed by the Village council.
  4. To deliberate on reports on applications for land as submitted and decided upon by the Village council.
  5. To receive and take note of directives from higher governance levels.


The Village Council is the organ which is vested with all executive (government) power in respect of all affairs and business of the village Specifically the Village council is required:

  1. To oversee security and peace activities in the Village
  2. To do all such things as are necessary or expedient for the economic and social development of the village
  3. To initiate and undertake any tasks, venture or enterprise designed ensure the welfare and well-being of the residents of the Village.
  4. To receive and deliberate issues raised at meeting of Vitongoji (sub-village) Assemblies
  5. To plan and coordinate the activities of and render assistance and advice to the residents of the village engaged in agricultural, horticultural, forestry or other activity or industry of any kind.
  6. To encourage resident of the village in undertaking and participating in communal enterprises.
  7. To participate by way of partnership or any other way, in economic enterprises with other Village councils


The Village Council is required to meet once every month but may hold an emergency meeting anytime if a need so arises.


  1. The Hamlet (Kitongoji)

The lowest Local Government organ in rural and peri-urban areas is the Hamlet or “Kitongoji”, which forms part of a registered Village. The law requires that the area of a Village shall be divided into not more than five “Vitongoji” consisting of such number of households or of such geographical areas as may be determined by the Village council and approved by the District Council. Every “Kitongoji” has a chairperson who is elected by the electron college consisting of all the adult members of the “Kitongoji” in accordance with electron procedures prescribed by the Minister responsible for the Local Government and also who may be removed from office by the decision of a simple majority of such members.


The chairperson of a “Kitongoji” may appoint a Committee of three person s from amongst the resident of the “Kitongoji” to advice on issues beneficial to the “Kitongji” and may also appoint one of the residents to act as Secretary.


The “Kitongoji” Chairperson’s specific functions and responsibilities are:

  1. To convene monthly meeting of all “Kitongoji” residents to discuss and resolve on issues relating to peace, security and development of the “Kitongoji”
  2. To maintain a register of all “Kitongoji” residents and other particulars relating to the general development of the “Kitongoji” including a record of births and deaths
  3. To ensure peace and security of residents and their property
  4. To arbitrate on minor conflicts which need not to be referred to the Ward Tribunal or to the courts.
  5. To mobilize residents to pay required taxes and dues as determined by the District and Village Councils
  6. To deal with health and environmental issue in the Kitongoji and ensure proper implementation of National, regional and District campaigns against communicable diseases.
  7. To ensure proper protection of the environment and water sources.
  8. To follow up and ensure that all school going children secure a place and attend school as required.
  9. To sensitise residents to participate in adult literacy classes
  10. To sensitise residents to participate in development activities through self-help
  11. To represent the Kitongoji in the village council.




Forms of Local Government in Tanzania

In Tanzania forms of local government include;
1. Village government or Neighbourhood (Mtaa) government in rural or urban setting respectively. A village/Neighbourhood government is the smallest local government unit. It is made up of the village/Mtaa Assembly which is headed by a village/mtaaa chairperson and the village/ Mtaa council which is led by the Village/ Mtaa Executive Officer (VEO/MEO). The adult population in the village forms the village assembly. The village council is the executive arm of the village assembly. It has powers to oversee the day to day activities of the village. A village government discharges its functions through its standing committee which are the Finance, economic and planning committee; the Defence and Security committee and the Social service committee.

2. District councils. The district council are constituted by:-

i. Elected members or councilors, one from each ward in the district

ii. Three members appointed by the minister responsible for local government

iii. The Member of Parliament or members of parliament from the constituencies within the areas of the district.

iv. Chairperson of the village council elected by the district council. Their number does not exceed one-third of the total member

A district council is headed by a chairperson who is assisted by a vice chairperson.

The Chief Executive of the council is the District executive of the council is the district executive director (DED) who is a government employee.

  1. Urban authorities (Town council, Municipal councils and council). These councils are headed by the Mayor and the deputy mayor who are elected from among the elected councilors. There are also Town Municipal and city Director. A town, Municipal or city Director is the Chief Executive and serves as Secretary to his or her respective function and council.


Functions of Local Government

Local government are expected to perform various functions and duties which can be grouped into two major categories. These are mandatory and permissive functions and duties.


  1. Mandatory function and duties of local government

Mandatory and duties of a local government are those function and duties which are to be performed by a local government without question as required by law of the country. The central government requires local governments to perform such duties and the local governments have no choice except to discharge such duties as required.

  1. Maintenance of peace, order, and good governance
  2. Promotion of economic welfare and social well-being of all persons
  3. To further the social and economic development of its area of jurisdiction in in accordance with the national policy and plans for rural and urban development
  4. Formulation, coordination and supervision of the implementation of all plans for economic, industrial and social development in the area of jurisdiction;
  5. Monitoring and controlling the performance of the duties and function of the council and its officers and staff.
  6. Ensuring the collection and utilization of the revenues of the council
  7. Making by-laws for the implementation of national and local policies
  8. Ensuring, regulation and coordinating development plans, projects and programs of village and township authorities within their areas of jurisdiction.
  9. Regulating and monitoring the collection and utilization of revenue of village council and township authorities.


  1. Permissive functions

Permissive function are those which the local government may perform depending upon needs and availability of financial resource. Such functions are the following.

  1. Control or prescription of method of husbandry on agricultural land
  2. Establishment, maintenance, operation and control of drainage and sewerage works
  3. Building, equipping and letting shops and dwelling houses
  4. Charging fees for services and licenses. For instance, taxes on goods and services such as crop cess, forest produce cess, hunting license, fees, business and professional license, etc
  5. Building and maintaining health centers and primary as well as secondary schools.

The role of local government in enhancing democracy in Tanzania

The following are the ways through which the local government enhances democracy in the country.

  1. Local governments give chance to many people to participate in election by making democratic decisions through casting votes on the candidates they want. For example, they choose village chairpersons, councilors, etc.
  2. Local governments bring about greater democratic participation of citizens through holding referenda, recalls, initiatives and citizen assemblies for collective decision making.
  3. Local governments provide room of involving people in planning and implementation of developed programmes. The purpose of having Local Government Authorities, ion the words of article 146(1) of the Constitution, is “to transfer authority to the people”. Local Government authorities have been given power to participate and to involve the people in the planning and implementation of development programmes within these respective areas and generally through the country.
  4. Local government ensure that people participate in the affairs of their government in accordance with the provisions of the condition. Eg. the village assembly meets once in every three months and may hold an extraordinary meeting whever there is urgent issue to be resolved.
  5. Local government enable the enacting of by-laws which are more relevant and which seek to realize the interest of citizen within their locality. For example, the Ward Development Committee formulates and submits to the village council to the District/urban councils proposals for the making of by-laws in relation to the affairs to the Ward.
  6. Local Government Monitor and control the performance of duties and function of the council and its offices and staff. For instance, the Ward Development committee supervises and coordinates the implementation of Council projects and programmes.
  7. Local government sensitise residents to participate in development activities through self-help and mobilize residents to pay required taxes and dues as determined by the District and village council.

The role and responsibilities of individual citizen in a democratic society

(i)                Active participation in the community development: A citizen ought to be active in activities such as agricultural activities and other physical works.

(ii)             Participation in prevention of crime and reporting: In a democratic society the process of preventing crime and reporting crime is not only the function of the police and other forces but also the duty of every citizen. For that case a citizen has the role and responsibility of providing great cooperation to the forces such as police in order to deal effectively with any social crime in the society.

(iii)           Timely payment of taxes: Paying tax and other duties is the responsibility and role of a citizen in a democratic society. He/she has to be punctual in fulfilling this without being forced

(iv)           Respect of the law and the constitution: The constitution of any country has the function of directing the country’s leaders how to run the country. It is the role and responsibility of every citizen to respect the constitution by not violating the rules which have been stipulated within it.

(v)              To respect others’ rights: The role and reasonability of a citizen is to respect human rights. These are right to life, right to own property, freedom of assembly and of press, etc

(vi)           To combat corruption: Every citizen in a democratic society has the role and responsibility of fighting against corruption. Corruption is a problem in society since it leads to laziness and delays in provision of services. Corruption also weakness human rights because one can be considered to be right if he/she has a lot money and has given bribes.

(vii)         Care of the environment, public property and services: Every citizen is responsible to protect and conserve the environment by using applicable methods such as a forestation and reforestation. Also a citizen has the responsibility of caring property like schools, building, roads, national parks and other services constructed by the government for public services.

(viii)      Participating in political matters either directly or indirectly: For example, standing in political meeting and joining political organization.

(ix)           To have a good conduct and behavior: Every citizen has the responsibility of examining his/her behavior in the country he or she resides. If it seems to be immoral he/she should have a moral obligation to refrain it. For example, bad behavior such as theft, homosexuality, prostitution, use of marijuana and other social crime.

(x)              To exercise honesty and civility: The role of a citizen in democratic society is to be faithful for anything which is planned for development of a communication

(xi)           To promote peace and harmony: It is the role and responsibility of every citizen to ensure that unity and solidarity prevail. So every citizen has a duty to ensure that any conflict that arises is settled.


The role and responsibilities of civil society organizations in a democratic society

Civil society organizations (CSOs) are not profit non-governmental organizations that have a presence in public life expressing the interests and values of their members and others based on cultural, ethnic and political consideration e.g. HakiElimu, TGNP (Tanzania Gender Networking Programme), MWDo (Maasai Women Development Organization), Enviro Care (Environment, Human Rights, Care and Gender Organization), etc.

The following are the role and responsibilities of strong civil society organization in democratic society.


  1. Supporting policy formation implementation and evaluation through practical advice. For examp0le, the Tanzania Gender budget Initiative (GBI) is organized by Feminist activities (FemAct) led by TGNP and it exemplified effort by civil society organization to engage more directly in the policy making process at all levels.
  2. Regulating and monitoring state performance and behavior of public official. Active society organizations scrutinize state performance and ethical behavior of public officials to ensure that there is no misuse of power for person interests.
  3. To enable citizen to identify their values beliefs and democratic practices. Civil society organizations mobilize constituencies especially the vulnerable and marginalized to participate fully in public affairs.
  4. Civil society organization foster development work of citizens and improve well-being of their own community.
  5. Civil society organizations act as watch dogs to see what the government does. For example checking the way government respect human rights.
  6. Civil society organizations act as a link between donors and aid beneficiaries. Since civil society organizations act as a bridge between the state and citizen donors tend to use these organizations as they are able to fulfill the needs of a given society. For example, in Tanzania aid may be given through the civil Society Foundation.


Democratic process and democratic elections

Democratization process involves the political reforms to ensure that the principles of democracy are achieved. One major indicator of democratic reforms is to have democratic elections.



An election is the process of choosing/selecting person by vote for a given position especially in political office

Democratic elections are elections held in an atmosphere in which participants are tolerant or willing to listen to the political views of their opponents and when the electoral law and rules are fair and equal for all contestants.


Factors which make elections democratic (free and fair)

For an election to be declared democratic (free and fair), the following conditions should be observed:

(i)              A well developed system of many political parties from which people can choose those they wish to be their representatives.

(ii)             Equal opportunities to all parties: Candidates and political parties that are contesting in the election should be treated equally

(iii)           Widely accepted rules of the game within which the struggle for power takes place.


  1. iv)   Presence of an independent and impartial electoral body. This is required to be honest, competent and non partisan
  2. v) The existence of an independent judiciary to interpret the electro law
  3. vi) Free and fair campaigns :campaigs are political meeting where candidates present their views promise and progmmers and voters ask question .these views can be read or heard from the mass media eg. Radios TVs news paper the posters flies and pamphlets in a democratic state the government allow freedom of expression candinatedes parties and voters are not intimidated threatened bribed or prevented from voting

vii) the campaigns should focus on political and socio- economic issues like poor education decling economy poor health services bad ,infastractucture low crop prices of agricultural product excessive these these problems and not going astray from them.

viii)     Equal access to the mass media for all political party the mass media which include radio, television, posters   newspaper leaflets, banners stikers and internet influence the   way people vote. In democratic election all candidates and parties should have equal access to the   media. The existing government or the party in power should not dominated the media or suppress the freedom of the press

ix)Abiding by agreed code of conduct. A code of conduct for a democratic elections a set of rules and regulations that are set by the electoral commission and have     to be adhered to all political parties as well as   the candidates who are contesting for various political posions.


The Tanzania code of conduct in democratic elections

  1.    All parties shall have access to all potential voters. No party shall have an exclusive control of any area.
  2.    There shall be no use of inflammatory or derogatory language during campaigns.
  3.    There shall be no use of intimidation in any form including death threats and arson.
  4.    There shall be no interference or disruption at public meetings during campaigns.
  5.    All parties shall commit themselves to a secret ballot and respect cotters right to keep their voters secret.
  6.    There shall be ban on carrying and displaying of all weapons during election campaigns and on the voting day.
  7.    The security forces shall not take sides or interference with the election process.
  8.    Election campaigns shall be conducted daily, the parties and voters shall be tolerant of each other’s point of view.
  9.    There shall be no tempering with or interference with voters ballot papers on the election.
  10.    All political parties shall undertake to accept the results of the election if the electoral process in declared free and fair


Principles of democratic elections

There are four basic principles of democratic elections;

  1. i) Universal voting/universal suffrage; This is a condition which allows all citizen who have legally meet voting qualifying to vote and be voted for regardless of their sex, race, language, income, profession, education, religion or political beliefs
  2. ii) Equality of votes when an election is democratic each votes carries one vote.

iii) Secret ballot: secret ballot means voting secretly. This condition requires that voting act should not be known by another person, casting of the votes must be in secret.

  1. iv) Direct elections : This when the votesrs decide for themselves who their leaders will be. That action of casting a vote against or for a candidate means that the voters are directly electing their leaders


Free and fair election in Tanzania

The organ responsible for ensuring that elections held are in a free and fair manner is the National Elector commission (NEC ) in mainland Tanzania or Zanzibar electoral commission (ZEC) for the Zanzibar Isles. This   national electoral commission is established by parliamentary act but its top officials are appointed by the president of the United republic of Tanzania and it is expected to carry out it activities without interference and impartiality.

Election are said to be free in the sense that any one qualifying vote in allowed o do so without external influence or interference .Fare election is therefore, unlawful for any candidate party or candidate to use Government facilitates or resources for the purpose of complaining .It is again very necessary to note that, all candidate are to be given equal access to state owned media secured are for public rallies and political speech

The following are actions that  have been taken to ensure fair and free election in Tanzania

i)Passing an electoral law: This was passed by the parliament to facilitate lawful admistration of the national electoral commission the law stipulates detailed instruction and gives the national electoral commission (NEC) the power to:Design print and control the use of ballot paper: create polling stations, promote civic education, on voting procedures, accredit any non –particular individual or group or an institution or an association   to carry out voter education: demarcate constituencies :Determine a polling day, keep and maintain voters register ensure that transparent vote counting is exercised and announce the election result.

ii. Provision of election monitors and observes: These are experts responsible for ensuring equal fairness and justice to candidate and parties. This include NGOS eg TEMCO (Tanzania election monitaring council, LHRC(legal and human right center). TEC(Tanzania Episcopal conference) CCT (Cristian council of Tanzania

iii) Allowing international election observers whose function are to oversee that elections proceeding are in order and that the who exercise maintain a free and fair approach. For example the 1995 ,2000,2005,and 2010 multiparty general elections in Tanzania international observers were invited for the European union, united nations, Africa union, southern Africa development   cooperation  and East Africa


The election process has to undergo a number of stages: these including

  1. Registration of voters; people who are allowed to vote are those who have sound mind and should be citizen of Tanzania and have the age of 18 years and above .registration of votes is done in special areas prepared by the electoral commission. Registration of votes is very important because it help to know the number of voters .it also help to understand who have qualifications of being a votes
  2. Candidate selection: every   party in Tanzania has it own way of choosing its candidates to contest for councilors members of parliament and presidential position   .every party is supposed to indentify` candidates who are likely to win based on for instance persona ability integrity personanality eloquence and above all with no criminal record.
  3. Organization and management of campaigns: all party candidates given equal opportunities to address the public and present themselves to the voters. All electoral and present themselves to the voters. All electoral campaigns should be done orderly in line with laid out norms and procedures.
  4. Voting: after campaigns people who are qualified as registered voters go to the parties they like. The voting is done through secret ballot each party being represented at the pollingstation.
  5. Vote counting counting of the votes follows immediately after complection of the voting and each polling station reveals its results to the public. Those who have the right to participate in the counting process are the representation of the candidate or the political party.
  6. Announcing the results: The national electoral commission is the only body to announce and the general results of elections. It is responsible to declare winners of all posts starting with those members of parliament and the president

Qualification of candidates contesting for various posts in Tanzania

A political candidate is any person who is qualified for the post he or she is contesting and he or she has been appointed by the political party to contest for that post.

  1. a)    a candidate for the councilor post.

A candidate for the councilors post should have the following qualifications.

  1. i)                  He/she has to be a Tanzanian citizen
  2. ii)               He/she has reached the age of 21 years and above

iii)            He/she has to master reading and   writing Kiswahili or English language

  1. iv)            He/she has to be a member of registered political party and be appointed by the party to be a councilor candidate.
  2. v)               He/she has to have a credible source of income which will enable her or   him to live a decent life.
  3. vi)            He/she has to have a resident of the ward or town where he or she is contesting for councillorship.

vii)            He/she has to have not less than ten sponsors who have been registered in the ward where he or she is contesting.

viii)      He/she must not be convicted for tax evasion for period of 5 years before election.

  1. ix)            He/she has to have a bond of 50,000 cash money and submit in to the election supervisor.
  2. x)               He/she must take oath using a special form in front of magistrate to testify that he or she has the qualifications to be a councilor and has accepted to be a candidate.
  3. b)   a   candidate for the parliamentary post

For   the parlimenty post a candidate has to have the following qualification.

  1. i)                  He/she has to be a citizen Tanzania
  2. ii)               He/she should have acquired the age 21years and above and be mentally fit.

iii)            He/she has to master writing and reading skills in English or Kiswahili language.

  1. iv)            He/she must not be convicted for tax evasion for a period of five years before election.
  2. v)               He/she has to have at least 25 sponsors who are eligible voters in his or her constituency which her or she is contesting
  3. vi)            He/she must be a member of registered political party and be appointed by the party to contest for the parliamentary post in the respective constituency.

vii)         He/she should take the oath by using special forms in front of the parliamentary post.

viii)      He/she has to have a bond of 500,000 cash money to be submitted to the election supervisor from NEC.

  1. c)                A candidate for presidential post.

The qualifications of presidential candidate of the united republic of Tanzania are

  1. i)                He/she has to be a citizen of the united republic of Tanzania by birth
  2. ii)               He/she has to have reached age of 40 years and above

iii)              She/he has to have the qualifications that would enable him or her to be a member of parliament

  1. iv)              He/he has to be a member of a registered political party and should be appointed by the party to contest for the presidential post
  2. v)               He/he should not have any record of tax evasion within a period of 5 years before election.
  3. vi)              He/she has take the oath in front of a judge of referral court to testify that he or she has accepted to be presidential candidate.

vii)              He/she has to 200 sponsors who have been registered as eligible votes from all regions of Tanzania. The sponsors should sponsor only one candidate for the presidential post in one election.

Role of various group in the election process:

  1. i)                  These nominate names of candidates who will contest for the existing vacancies.
  2. ii)               Political parties have to provide civic education to their members and the public at large as well as encourage people to

Participate in political activities e.g. registration and voting.

iii)            Political parties have to prepare their party manifestos that disclose what will happen in case a party takes over the executive office.

  1. Electoral commission

This is the key organization which over sees the entire election process:

  1. i)                  It provides voters education
  2. ii)               It ensures fair play in elections

iii)            It ensures the candidates meet the qualification required for the post they are contesting for:

  1. iv)            It prepares votes registration books and updating, it ensures that every person who qualifies to be registered as voter is given a chance to vote.
  2. v)               It prepares the constituency centers for voting
  3. vi)            It sets the dates of election

vii)         It   oversees voting activities in the whole country

viii)      Announces election result.

The government:

The government has to provide the financial material and security support for the election process:

  1. Non –government organization (NGOS)
  2. i) They provide voters education to the citizens by using different means and approached
  3. ii) NGOS must not impart education that can divide people by any means

iii)            NGOS are not supposed to take the role of political parties

  1. 5.   Mass media
  2. i)                  The mass media should educate people on the importance of participating in the election process
  3. ii)               The mass media should be make sure that citizens are aware of political manifestations of very party, and play to be as impartial as possible

iii)            The mass media should make people aware of election results as are given by the Elector commission

  1. 6.   The citizens

This is target group: citizens have a big role to play in election by:

  1. i)                  Registering in votes registration book:
  2. ii)               Participating in the campaigns and listening to the political agendas/ manifestation of different political parties and deciding which to vote for the most appealing

iii)            Casting their votes on the voting day

  1. iv)            Receiving accepting or rejecting the result.
  2. v)               Informing the official if they think there was malpractice in the electoral process. E.g. corruption and intimidation.

The election will therefore be free and fair only when all groups take part in the whole process. The failure of any group to the party of the process is likely to jeopardize the whole exercise

The importance /advantages of democratic elections

  1. Democratic election help give the opportunity to voters to choose good leaders: voters believe that electing a different party or candidate can be an alternative to solve their problem and improve their lives: thus elected voters make laws or by – laws that have a direct impact on the day life of people. Good leaders are very important to people’s development.
  2. To ensure good government: when good leaders are voted into office by the people through democratic voting they form a good and effective governance. Free and fair elections ensure that people make informed choices of parties and candidate
  3. To make the government accountable for its actions. The part which is vote in office seeks to serve well the voters. Elections are therefore means of building a responsible government by rejecting corrupt parties or candidates in an election.
  4. To place in office a government of people’s choice: Democratic elections are vital in forming a new government. Though elections the voters show acceptance. Rejection or dissatisfaction.
  5. To improve the political system. Any ruling party which comes to power maker effort to prove to the electorate that it is capable of forming an effective government. Opposition parties on the other had try to convince the electorate that they can do. Better than ruling party. In this situation the political system

Short coming of the democratic elections:

  1. i)                  It is costly: the whole process toward Election Day is expensive. The producer include scrutinizing candidates, publicity driving electro constituencies, registering, voters monitoring the campaigns courting the ballot and verifying the ballot paper when necessary all these require a lot of money.
  2. ii)               Elections are time consuming .this is because the outlined steps have to be ffowed precisely by all contestants and their supporters.

iii)            The reasons for choosing candidates can be right or wrong. In centrain circumstances same candidates may influence voters to vote for them through bribes deceit tribalism religion personal wealth nepotism or social status

Short comings  in the multiparty general elections in Tanzania

  1. Constraints on media: there are about 245 private newspapers, over 134 newspapers owned by government agencies and deportment and about 44 religious newspapers. However, the newspaper act of 1976 contains many restrictions on freedom of the press. For example section 5 (2)grants vast power to the minister responsible for information to deregister any newspaper at any time he or she thinks it does not quality. Similarly, 25(1) gives minister power to ban any newspaper at any time he or she deems right to do so for. Example in October 2008 Mwanahalisi was banned by the government for three months allegedly for having published seditious   article
  2. Shortage of fund; section 13(1) of political parties act 5 no.5 of 1992 states that not only registered political parties which have parliamentary seats and popular votes are the ones qualified for funds. This makes only few political parties to quality for subsidies .for example ,after 2005 general elections CCM received   Tshs.555.5 million per month (82.8%) of the total CUF received 77,2 million ,CHADEMA received Tshs 1.4 million. Hence there is a concern among opposition political parties that this wide resource disparity constrains the opposition to spread nationwide.
  3. Oppressive laws on political association: section 40, 41, 42 and 43 of the police act, cap. 322 R.E 2002 require any political party whether provisionally or fully registered purpose of such a meeting. However the police frequently use these section to cancel oppotion political parties meeting on ground that the meeting is likely or intends to cause a breach of peace or jeopardize the public safety in the area.
  4. Lack of independence and impartiality of the national Electoral commission this stems from the fact that all member of the commission are appointments are not clear and transparent to the extent that most stakeholders lose trust and confidence in the commission
  5. An element of corruption during campaigns’ and election whereby the part vanguards dish out items like t- shirts khan gas dirking food etc to allure the voter.
  6. Minimal participation of citizen in the election. Over 50% of the registered voters did not show up in the 2010 general election.
  7. Poor preparation: for example poor registration of voters led to same constituencies to repeat voting exercise in busereserekaragwe   etc during the 2010 general election
  8. Unequal access to media coverage especially state owned media opposition parties do not get adequate access to mass media owned by the government.
  9. Intimidation of the opposition parties by government authority. This includes raiding and interruption opposition party campaigns.
  10. The ruling party is constantly being accused of using state owned funds and resourceses such as vehicles for party campaigns

The practices of human rights


Human right are fundamental rights or rights that human beings is born with and area inherent in him or her and not granted by the state of any person.

Normally the state enhances human right but does grant the human rights.

Categories of human right

Right which an individual must have include but not limited to the following.

  1. a)    Civil and political rights (also termed as the first generation rights)

They include the right to equality   and protection before the law; right to organize right to self-determination; freedom from arbitrary torture ; right to life freedom of assembly: right to due process: right to be leader or to choose representatives in the government : freedom of worship: freedom of movement right to marriage freedom of speech: freedom of expression freedom of inquiry and criticism freedom of slavery and servitude etc.

  1. b)   Solidarity community or collective right (also known as the third generation right)

They include: right to cultural identity righty to clean environment the right to development the right to peace etc.

Origin and development of human right wide 

The standard western account of the tradition human right is same what problematic the                                                                                                                               expression human right is relatively new in the daily use which started after the Second World War and the founding of the united Nations before this period human right used to be known as natural right or the right of man most scholars of human right trace the concept back to ancient Greece and Rome during this are human rights were attached to natural law it was conceive that all rights of citizens came from natural and not the state or individuals. However the human right development story has multiple layers as it involves a dispute between those who believe in human rights and those doubts. Following below is a brief account of the important events for explaining historical background to the origin and   development of human rights.

  1. a)    Early legal developments in the area of human rights are said to have emerged from the magna carta of 1215. The magna carta was a contract between the English king john and representative who were dissatisfied with the taxes being levied by monarchy. This agreement guaranteed the right for a free man not be arrested or detained in prison or deprived of his freehold or outlawed or outlawed or banished. Or in any way molested innless by lawful judgment of this peers and the law of the land
  2. b)   The English bill of right of 1689. The English bill of right of 1689 is also sometimes considered to be a stepping stone to day s texts on human right .the parliament declared that no excessive fine(be) imposed nor cruel and unusual punishment (be) inflicted
  3. c)    The work of a number of philosophers and writes: the work of a number of philosophers had a very concrete influence on the articulation of demands in the form of natural right of man same philosophers were such as John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Emmanuel Kant, Alan Gerwith, Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Paine, Olympe de Geuge, Marry Wollpastone Craft, HerschLauterpacht, ect.
    John Locke’s second Treatise of Government published in 1690, considered men in ‘a state of natural’ where they enjoyed ‘a State of Liberty2. Jean Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract published in 1762 developed the idea that and individual may have a private will and that his private interest may dictate very differently from the common interest. He also argued that following the genaral will makes man free.3.. Emmanuel Kant: Emmanuel Kant, a German philosopher, also contributed to the contemporary appreciation of the importance of respecting human dignity as he developed two imperatives stated as follow:
    4. Alan Gerwith: In the words of this modem philosopher, “ Agents and institutions are absolutely prohibited from degrading persons, and treating them as if they had no rights or dignity”. This is often the starting point for right theories that emphasize the importance of individual autonomy.

    5. Thomas Paine: Thomas Paine was radical English writer who participated in the revolutionary changes affecting America. He emigrated to Africa in 1774 and in 1776 produced a widely read pamphlet call Common Sense which attacked the idea of rule by Monarchy and called for Republic government and equal rights among citizen. He also worked on the constitution of Pennsylvania and fot the subsequent abolition of slavery in that state. He further wrote a book entitled ‘Rights of Man’ which appeared in 1791 in defense of the French Revolution.

    6. Olympe de Gouge: Olympe de Gouge made effort to promote a Declaration of the Rights of Women and a ‘Social Contract Between man and Woman’ with the view of regulating property and inheritance rights.

    7. In England, Mary Wollstonecraft’s “Vindication of the right of Women” appealed for a revision of the French Constitution to respect the right of women, arguing that men could not decide for themselves what they judge would be best for women

    8. Jeremy Bentham: In the 19th Century, natural rights or the rights of man became less relevant to political change and thinkers such as Jeremy Bentham ridiculed the idea that ‘all men are born free’ as ‘Absurd and miserable nonsense’. For Bentham, the rights were legal right and it was the role of the law makers and not natural rights advocates, to generate and determine their limits.

    9. AmartyaSen: Thus contemporary scholar had a different thinking from that of Jeremy Bentham for him; human rights are pre-legal moral claims that can hardly be seen as giving justiceable rights in court and other institutions of enforcement. He cautions against confusing human rights with legislative legal rights.

(d) The 1776 American Declaration of Independence: This is also taken to be one of the influential phenomenons to the birth and development of the practice of human right. It stated that:

“We hold these by their to be self-evident, that all men are created equal: that they are allowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights: that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”

(e)The French Declaration of the Rights of man and of the Citizens of 1789. It contained articles which recognized and proclaimed that; “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights” and that “the aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and invaluable rights of man.

These rights are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression”

(f)The first World War event: The development and practice of human rights also has a bearing on the First World War. At the end of the war, Versailles Peace Treaty of 1919 established the League of Nations and the International Labour Organization (ILO). The League developed and promoted minorities’ treaties; fostered the development of international workers’ rights and worked on the abolition of slavery. Specifically, here there developments by the Lague cab be noted:

1. goal of fair and humane condition of labour for men, women and children was stated explicitly in the League Covenant
2. The human right of individual was granted legal protection on the bases of individual ties to a state and in order to reduce political tensions among states that might lead to war.

3.Workers right were to be recognized and protected as this was seen by some states as the best way to prevent their population from turning to communism and to reduce the aims of revolution


  1. g)  Inter war period: in this the inter war period there was some interest in developing the scope of international law to cover concern for individual right. Following the end of the Second World War, the united nations charter was respect for human right and obliged state to cooperate with UN for the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human right.


  1. h) The Universal Declaration of Human Right (1948) the establishment of the United Nations organization signaled the beginning of a period of unprecedented international concern for the protection of human rights. Under the auspices of the UN, several key instruments were establish for the promotion and protection of human rights. The day after the adoption of the Gonocide Convention, the general Assembly proclaimed the universal declaration of human rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. Though not binding legal document but it contain actual human right obligations and states a common understanding of the people of the world concerning the inalieble and inviolable right of all member of the human family. Furthermore thought the universal declaration of human right the UN gave an international meaning to the expression human right. Since then various human right treaties have been developed. The following is an abridged version of those human rights contained in the universal declaration of human rights.
  2. All human being are born free and equal in matter of dignity and Justine
  3. No human being should be discriminated against on whatever basis such as nationality, colour, religion, gender, social, class etc

iii. Every human being has the right to live a free life and to be assured of his/her security

(iv)It is prohibited to enslave any human being

(v)It is prohibited to persecute any human being or subject him or her to cruel treatment and humiliation

(vi) All human being are legal before the law and have equal right to be protected by the law. Every human being has the right to seek and get justice in the courts whenever her or she falls victim of violation of his or her basic right recognized in the constitution and the law of his/her country of residence

(vii)It is prohibited to arrest, detain or deport anyone from his or her country of nationality without fundamental reasons

(viii)Every accused person has the right to be heard and defend him/her in an independent and impartial court

(ix) It is prohibited to arbitrarily interfere with an individual person life such as his or her privacy, family, residence or communications

(x) Every person has the right toseek and live a descent life politically, economically, health wise and culturally.

(xi) It is prohibited to arbitrarily, interfere with an individual person life such as his or her privacy, family, residence or communications

(xii)Every person has the right to choose where to live so long as in so doing one does not interfere with other people’s rights or the just laws of the country concerned

(xiii) Every person has the right to leave his or her country freely and return freely without undue obstacles

(xiv)Every person has the right to nationality. It is prohibited to strip someone of this his or her nationality without basic reasons or deny him or her the right to change his or nationality when he or she so wishes

(xv)Every human being individually or collectively has the right to own property

(xvii) It is prohibited to confiscate someone’s property without a due and just legal process which guarantees a satisfactory compensation.

  1. i) The international convention: following the adoption of the universal declaration of human rights the United Nations organizations human right commission began to work on a binding text in the form of a treaty together with measures for implementation. Two instruments were developed on the 16th December 1966. These were: the civil and political rights convention (including right like rights to life, liberty, fair, trial, freedom of movement, thought, consciences, peaceful assembly, family and policy. It also prohibits slavery, torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and punishment, discrimination arbitrary arrest and imprisonment for debt) as well as the Economic, social and culture rights conventions (including right such as right to education, food, housing, health care, the right to work anad to just and favorable conditions of work. Both of these came into force in 1976. These two covenants taken together with the universal declaration of the human right area sometimes referred to as the International Bill of Rights.


i)In addition to the international bill of human rights these are other treaties that are considered core to the human rights system. They include the “international convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination” which come into force in 1969 and prohibits any distinction exclusion restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing of human right and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.

iii)The other convention core to the human right system is the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. This is designed to ensure women have equal access to political and public life as well as education, helth and employment. Under this convention which entered into force 1981, sates are also obliged: to modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women with a view to achieving the elimination of prejudices and customary and all other practices which are based on the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes or on stereotyped roles for men and women.


(iv)The convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment comes into force in 1987. The convention includes a definition of torture (for the purposes of the convection) and insists that any party to it undertakes obligations: to take measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction not to return any person to state where there are substantial grounds for believing that person would be in danger of being subjected to torture and to ensure that acts of torture can be prosecuted in the courts of that state even though those acts occurred abroad.

v)The convention on the rights of the child defines a child as every human being below the age of eighteen unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier. This has historical roots in the Geneva Convention of 1924 which was the first international covenant to mention the rights of the child.


It seeks to protect children from practices that particularly endanger their welfare, including economic exploitation, trafficking, and illicit use of drugs and all forms of sexual exploitation and abuse. The guiding principles of the convention are the need to take into account the child’s best interests. Non discrimination, and respect for the wishes of the child. The convention was adopted in 1989 but enters into force in 199 and has become the most widely ratified of all UN human rights treaties. The only member states not to have ratified the convention are Somalia and the united state.


vi)The other core human rights treaty is the international convention on the protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and their Families, which entered into force in 2003.

Unfortunately, the states that have accepted obligation under this treaty are mostly states that export migrant workers avoid the reach of this treaty and the prospect f supervision by the monitoring body.


vii) Two new treaties were adopted at the end of 2006. The first is the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Key rights concern the right to work, and the right to education. States are obliged to refrain from discrimination on grounds of disability and to take measures to eliminate such discrimination by any person, organization or private enterprise.

The arrest, detention, abduction or any other form of deprivation of liberty committed by agents of the State or by persons or groups of persons acting with the authorization, support or deprivation liberty or by concealment of the fate or whereabouts of the disappeared person, which place such a person outside the protection of the law.


Protecting human rights through the treaties/conventions/covenants:

These treaties, and a series of parallel developments at the regional levels the Organization of American States the Council of Europe and the African Union, articulate a range of rights and testify to governments stated desire to protect human rights. But do they work? Clearly the daily evidence of human rights violations suggests that drafting and signing treaties is not enough Considerable effort has been expended to make the treaty guarantees more effective. This has been undertaken on a number of fronts.

  1. First expert monitoring bodies have been established to examine the reports of governments on how they fulfill their human rights obligations. This involves a ‘constructive dialogue’ over two or three days and results in ‘concluding observations’ from the relevant committee. Some monitoring bodies engage in fact-finding and country visits. In the context of the prevention of torture, the Council of Europe’s expert body makes periodic and ad hoc visits to places of detention in 46 European states. A new UN committee is expected undertake similar visits to those states that ratify a new treaty
  2. Second, under some treaties, complaints can be brought by aggrieved individuals against the state at the international level (usually only against those states that specifically recognize a right to complain under the treaty). In particular, one has to recognize the remarkable work of the regional bodies such as the European and American Courts of Human Rights and the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. These bodies have developed an impressive case-law which not only develops our understanding of the scope of human rights, but has led to some concrete protection and changes in the law. This system for individual complaints is at the same time remarkable for the volume of judgments delivered in Europe (the European Court of Human Rights delivered over 1,000 judgments in 2005) and for its astonishing under-utilization in the rest of the world (for example, in a



This can be defined as a political, economic, diplomatic and culture relation among the nation.

–  Political relation;Is the cooperation whereby the two or more independent state share ideas above political matters.

–  Economic relation;Is the situation whereby two or more independent states share economic activities e.g. International trade. There are four forms of economic relations. These are free trade area, customs union,common market and economic union.

–  Diplomatic relation;Is the level of international relation whereby different embassies are involved in structuring political, economic, social and cultural matters within their home countries and the lost countries.
A diplomat is a person who officially represents his/her own country in a foreign country.

–  Cultural relation; among the nations can be started in various form like the exchange of dances troops, theater groups, Musician and also sports and games. e.g. through world cup, UEFA, Kagame Cup, FA Cup etc. different nations come together and compete. This situation develops strong culture relation.


Foreign Policy is the system established or formulated by a country in order to maintain its regular political, social and economic interaction with other states in the world. The interaction is made by diplomatic who represents their representative country. The main task for diplomats or ambassadors is to make sure that social, culture and economic activities of their home countries are globally known and to prepare a tripe for the countries ruler.


Like other countries in the world, Tanzania has formulated the system of foreign policy to maintain regular political, social and economic affairs.

–   Tanzania foreign implemented and managed by the Ministry of foreign affairs and international relation.

–  Tanzania foreign policy is a policy of Non Alignment.


  1. Promotion of independence of all other African states.
  2. Maintenance of its freedom by determining domestic and foreign policy.
  3. Promotion of international cooperation and understanding through organization such as UNO, AU, and NAM.
  4. Promotion of world peace and order through UNO, AU, and others international organization.
  5. Promotion and maintenance of human rights and democracy in the world.

Reasons for Tanzania choosing the policy of Non Alignment

  1. To avoid unnecessary international conflicts.
  2. To maintain sovereignty on deciding international issues without being forced by bigger states.
  3. To choose friends regardless the influence of either of the block i.e. U.S.S.R and U.S.A.
  4. To strengthen international cooperation and understanding.

How Tanzania foreign policy is implemented.

Tanzania foreign policy is implemented by the Ministry of foreign Affairs and international cooperation through the Embassies or high commissions.
The main task of diplomats or Ambassadors is to make sure that social, cultural and economic activities of their home countries are globally known.
These diplomats or Ambassadors are also responsible in making  prior preparations to facilitate trips of national top leaders like president in their respective countries. These diplomats include the following;

A diplomat: Is a person who officially represents his/her country in a foreign country. The highest diplomats are known as ambassadors or ambassadresses, high commissioner and consul
An Ambassador/ambassadress – Is a government official representative living in a foreign country to conduct  business with that most country on behalf of his/her home country. The office of an ambassador or ambassadress is known as an Embassy.

A high commissioner: In common health countries, Such representatives (ambassador/ambassadress) are known as high commissions. The offices are termed as high commission

A consul: A consul on  the other hand is a representative of a town  or city to help country men living or visiting there. The consul’s office is called consulate.

How Tanzania foreign policy is implemented.
The following ways show how Tanzania implements her foreign policy.
(i) Tanzania has established diplomatic relations with different countries and has officials and ambassador in those countries so as to popularize her social, economic and cultural endowment as well as   promote co-operation.

(ii) Tanzania receives diplomatic official from different countries with their offices in Tanzania.

(iii) Tanzania has established relations with international organizations eg. UNO, Commonwealth, Au etc.
(iv) Tanzania is the member of the UN as it acknowledges the objectives and principle of the UN charter accord for the equality of all states and dignity of man.
(v) Tanzania has established regional and economic co-operation such as the EAC and SADC so as to secure genuine and equitable regional economic and infrastructural integration

Function of Ambassadors or high Commissioners:-

  1. To represent Tanzania abroad.
  2. To popularize Tanzania’s natural, social and cultural resources.
  3. To register and assist Tanzanians who lives abroad.
  4. To made preparations for facilitating trips of Tanzanians leader in foreign countries.


  1. Bilateral cooperation

–  This is a type of cooperation which involves the agreement between two states E.g. Tanzania and Zambia in running TAZARA. In this co-operation there is no specific or common ideology governing the undertaking of the member countries

–  Countries involve in this cooperation can agree to cooperate in various areas such as economic, cultural, scientific and technological researches, political, security and defense.

2.Multilateral Cooperation:-
This is the types of Cooperation which involve group of many countries like regional inter grouping such as S.A.D.C, E.A.C, and COMESA, NAM, AUetc. Multilateral cooperation is sometimes known as regional multilateral integration.

Importance of multilateral co-operation.
(i) The country gets aid and loans from friend nations with minimum nationalities or restrictions.

(ii) Promotion of both internal and external peace. The country is assured of security assistance from friendly nations and Tanzania participates in solving problems of other countries.

(iii) Improvement of transport and communication. Tanzania is able to improve transport systems across the borders due to friendly relations with the neighboring countries. For example, though Tanzania
Mozambique Friendship Association (TAMOFA). Tanzania has been able to construct Mtwara Bridge in association with Mozambique.

(vi) Economic development has also been achieved through friendly relations with other countries. Investors from friendly states come and invest in Tanzania and thus contribute to the economic development of Tanzania

(v)  International repute to Tanzania

(vi) Industrial development in various sectors due to private investors from friendly nations and the presence of market in those friendly states.

Regional organization


The new East African community was established in 2000 by the three head of states of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda to replace and refund former EAC which collapsed in 1977.

Reasons for the demise of former East African community:-

  1. Differences in ideologues and economic status among member states, whereby Tanzania adopted socialism, Kenya continued with capitalist while Uganda was between socialism and Capitalism.
  2. Over throw of the Obote regime by Idd Amin Dada, Obote was a close friendly of Nyerere so he decided not, for cooperate with Idd Amin.

The situation created misunderstanding between Tanzania and Uganda; therefore it was difficult for E.A.C leaders to meet.

  1. The outbreak of war between Tanzania and Uganda in 1978/79.
  2. Difference in currency in terms of value. Kenyan currency was higher than the other two countries of the two member states.
  3. Dis-satisfaction among the member state that Kenya was benefited than other states. Kenya was economically, powerful than other states. This made other two states to be market of Kenyan’s industrial goods.
  4. East African development bank (EAPB) failed to meet its founder expectation there were many demands but the banks income was unable to meet the demands.

Formation of New East Africa Community:-


  1. To attain sustainable growth and development of partner states by promotion of more balanced and harmonious development of member state.
  2. To strengthen and consolidate the cooperation in agreed fields that would lead to equitable economic development within the partner states which would intern lead to people’s standard of living.
  3. To promote good governance and accountability.
  4. To promote sustainable utilization of national resources and protect the environment.
  5. To enhance and strengthen participation of private in the region.
  6. Peaceful settlement of dispute
  7. To establish custom union with common market, monetary union and ultimately a political federation.

Achievement of the new E.A.C

Over ten (10) years since its re-establishment the new E.A.C made several achievements


  1. The community has promoted political relationship within the member. Example Member counties formed the East Africa community parliament which among other things discussed political issues, also each member state has a ministry responsible for the E.A.C affairs.
  2. Culturally the  community has succeeded to enhance sports and Games – there are several regional competitions that have been introduced and are held on rotational basis.
  3. There are several projects initiated to improve communication and transportation example Road Networks.
  4. There is an increase in fall movement of people and labor among the members status example there are many Tanzania youths and pupils schooling in UGANDA also there are many Kenyans and Ugandans working in Tanzanians various sector such as Education, Hotel management, Banking, Tourism.
  5. The community has succeeded in making contribution to peace in the Great lakes region example; in DRC.
  6. There is flow of capital among the member state inform of investments. This has created employment opportunity hence improvements of people living standards.


  1. Economic imbalance among member states, there is no effective and sustainable mechanism to address the imbalance.
  2. Insecurity and endless conflicts within and around the East Africa Region. Example, In Northern Uganda there are endless conflict between Government and Rebels.


The meaning:-

This is an economic grouping that brings together countries of Southern and central Africa. This Association consists of 14 Africa countries namely:- Botswana, Congo (DRC), Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychalles, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Switzerland, Lesotho.

This was formed in 30th September 1993 to replace the former Southern Africa, Development coordination conference (SADC) which was established in 1980 by Nine (9) countries such as Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.


  1. To promote sustainable and equitable economic growth that will ensure poverty alleviation.
  2. To achieve complementarity between national and regional strategies and programmed.
  3. To promote common political values that are transmitted through institution that is democratic, legitimate and effective.
  4. To achieve sustainable utilization of natural resources and effective protection of the environment.
  5. To combat HIV/AIDS and other deadly diseases or communicable diseases.
  6. To ensure gender mainstreaming in the process of community building.
  7. To develop and communicate system in order to stimulate agricultural and industrial development.
  8. To promote peace and security among the member states.


SADC and its member act in accordance with the full principles.

  1. Peace, solidarity and security.
  2. Sovereignty of all member states.
  3. Human rights, democracy and rule of law.
  4. Peaceful settlement of disputes.
  5. Equity, equality and mutual benefit.
  6. Promotion of economic welfare of the region.


  1. Establishment of Regional Fund for HIV/AIDS. This is because approximately 15 million people in SADC region are HIV      POSITIVE.
  2. Peace stability – Since the Angola peace award (Great) in April 2002, the region has enjoyed a certain degree of political stability between MPCA Vs UNITA under Jonas Savimbi from 1970’s – 1990’s
  3. Economic growth – the Growth Development Programs (GDP) in the SADC region has increased from 27% in 2002 to 32% in 2004.
  4. Women representation in political and decision making position is increasing very fast in the SADC member states, the target was to get 30% of women representation in political by 2005 some member states have already reached the target.

Example South Africa 31.3 %
Mozambique 31. 3%
Tanzania 30%

  1. Improvement in food security – The number of people who need food assistance is decreasing. Example In 2002 the number was 15.2 million people but in January 2004 the number drop out to 7%.
  1. It has managed to create political relationship among the member states; this has helped to create collective effort in solving   political conflicts in different countries.
  1. SADC has been cooperating with other organization on such as the AU so as to build strong unity and solidarity among African countries.


  1. Nationalism – some member state, cater for national interests first before SADC this undermines regional interests.
  2. Different levels of development – this leads to inequality in the distribution of benefits derived from SADC under taking example SA is stronger economically than the other member states.
  3. Weak financial base. Member states rely on foreign assistance which hinders SADC to become self reliant.
  4. Conflicts and wars in some member states e.g. Conflicts in DRC.
  5. Multi membership among member states. Some member states are also members of other regional integrations such as EAC and COMESA.
  6. Refugee problems, there is high influx of refugees in SADC region because of political instability in some member states.
  7. Lack of economic diversity, SADC member states produce similar goods mostly agricultural products hence difficult to secure markets.
  8. Low price of agricultural products in the world market.


ECOWAS is an economic integration of West African states formed in 1975.

Its members include:-

– Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Cote dIvore, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bisau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.

Objectives of ECOWAS:-

  1. To promote cooperation and integration in economic, social and cultural activities.
  2. To raise the living standard, or its people.
  3. To enhance economic stability among the member states.
  4. To enable free movement of people, capital and service.
  5. To coordinate industrial development in order to avoid duplication of resources and capital.
  6. To harmonize agricultural policies and projects among the member states.
  7. To achieve the common market, research and food processing.

Achievements of ECOWAS:-

  1. Abolition of custom duties and tariffs on goods originating from West Africa.
  2. It has managed to solve some political disputes within the member states. E.g. it worked hard in restoring peace in Liberia after the outbreak of Civil wars. This was done through ECOWAS monitoring group known as ECOMOG.
  1. It has created free movement of principle within the region; this has enabled people to cross the boarders freely within the region.
  2. It has established different environmental conservation projects, in the region. E.g. In 1982 a ten years forestation projects were established.
  3. It has succeeded the peace keeping force known as ECOMOG.That force has been intervening to restore peace in West African countries such as:
  • Liberia (1990).
  • Siera Leone (1994).
  • Guinea Bissau (1998).
  1. It has promoted relations among member states hence enhancing political and economic stability.
  2. It has established a mechanism for conflicts prevention management and resolution.

Challenges facing ECOWAS:-

  1. Political instability. This makes difficult for the respective member states to implement the set objectives. As a result ECOWAS concentrates much effort and time in solving political problems.
  2. Economic dependence – The member states still rely on external aid to finance development projects. External assistance is normally accompanied by tough conditionality.
  3. Low level of science and technology. The member states are technologically backward. As a result they fail to utilize the available resources effectively.
  4. Different level of economic development. Some ECOWAS member states are economically powerful than others, this small powerful states dominate or influence the affairs of the organization.

E.g. Nigeria has a dominant role in ruling ECOMOG and carried a big share of ECOMOG. This is because ECOMOG commanders have been predominantly Nigerian commander

  1. Nationalism:- Some members states cater for the national interest first before ECOWAS.
  2. Poor communication system, there is proper linkage of road and railway, most road are seasonal.
  3. Weak Financial base, most ECOWAS are poor economic base, this weak the organization to reach the state goals.

International peace and understanding

The background of the Africa Union (AU)
The background of the Africa Union (AU)
On 9.9.1999 the Head of state and government of the OAU issued a declaration for the establishment of African union (AU) with a view of accelerating the process of integration in the continent.

So, the AU was established in order to replace the former OAU. Since then, the four summits have been held to the official launching of the AU, These include:-

  1. The site extraordinary session (1999), this decided to establish the AU.
  2. The home summit (2000) which accepted the constitutive Act of the union.
  3. The Lusaka summit (2001) which drew the road map for the implementation of the AU.
  4. The Durban summit (2002) which launched the AU and convened the first Assembly of the heads of state of the AU.

The Vision of AU

The Vision of the AU is to create united and strong Africa in building partnership and all Segments of civil society modern to strengthen solidarity amongst the peoples of Africa.

Quest for Unity:-

African countries in their quest for unity, economic and social development under the barriers of OAU, have taken various initiatives and made substantial progress in many areas that paved the way for the establishment of the AU.

Objectives of the AU:-

  1. To achieve a greater unity and solidarity among African countries and the people of Africa.
  2. To defend the sovereignty territories integrity and independence of its members states.
  3. To promote peace, security and stability on the continent.
  4. To promote democratic principles and institution, popular participation and good governance.
  5. To accelerate political and socio – economic integration of the continent.
  6. To promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples.
  7. To promote international cooperation, taking due account of the UN charter and the universal Declaration of Human right.
  8. To promote sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural levels as well as integration of African.
  9. To advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields particularly in science and technology i.e. research in malaria.
  10. To work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable disease in order to promote good health and living standard.

Achievements of the AU

Since the Lusaka summit decisions on the transition from O.A.U to AU.

Progress has been made as follows:-

  1. It has promoted African unity and friendship for being a Forum where African leaders meet annually to discuss affairs of the continent.
  2. It has managed to solve internal conflicts and Civil wars in some states. E.g. in Comoro where the AU intervened back up the government of President Ali Abdullah Sambi from lebels led by colonel Bakary.
  3. It has managed to promote African regional economic integration e.g. promoting the African Development Bank (ADB).
  4. If has managed to make peaceful settlement of disputes by negotiations, mediation and conclusion e.g. Settlement of Kenyan disputes peacefully as well as settlement of dispute in Zimbabwe by establishing the coalition government President Robert Mugabe of ZANU – PF and Morgan Tsvangorai from MDC.
  5. AU through cultural activities like the African cup of nations has helped to promote closer understanding, cooperation and friendship among African states.
  6. It has maintained the no-interference into the internal affairs of the states.

Impelimentation of AU objectives

i. There has been a renewed commitment to human right, good governance,social and economic reform and development.

ii. Intensification of efforts to fight against HIV/AIDS in the continent. There are more efforts made of fight the pandemic which is claiming the life of many young and energetic people

iii. Recognition of the importance of gender balance in the election of the Africa Union’s commissioners and in the election of a woman a parliament’s first president. For example,GetrudeMongella.

iv. It has established Neo partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) with the focus of the developing the Africa states. NEPAD is the latest scheme for boosting economic development among the Africa states.

v. It has managed to create the court of justice which interprets laws and protects them. Through this organ
there is an improvement on respect of human rights.

vi. There is a monetary institution such as the Africa Central  Bank which provided loans to member states instead of depending much on foreign countries.

vii. There has been an establishment of the pan-Africa Parliament and the peace and Security Council. The later was launched in 26th May, 2004. Thus, it is hoped that the peace and security council will continue serving as an efficient tool in materializing the Africa agenda for conflict prevention, management and resolution.

viii. Promotion of democracy. Many Africa countries hold multiparty elections, Wide spread consultations o constitutional reforms are occurring in many Africa countries due to the efforts of AU


  1. Different levels of development – some AU members are economically powerful than other so they tend to influence the affairs of the AU as well dominating others. example, South Africa also the North African countries (Arab countries) like Egypt are not ready to cooperate closely with poor countries and also Nigeria.
  2. Economic dependence – African countries retain a dependent economy inherited from colonialists and continue under Neo colonialism e.g. technological dependence, budgetary dependence, loan dependence and expatriates.
  3. Conflict and wars within the AU members Example. In DRC, Mali, Sudan.
  4. Terrorism and threats in some African countries. example, Kenya (West gate issue in 2013), Somalia, Uganda, Nigeria.
  5. Poor communication system and transport problems – there is inter territorial linkage were bordering states organically belonged to different colonial master.
  6. It is not autonomous organ – it is dependent and UN organs AU has no standing army of itself , this is because the AU cannot operate military or form a standing army without the consent of the UN security council . This delays its ability to settle situation that call for that immediately.
  7. Refugee problem in Africa – due to political instability led to high influence of refugees and political instability in some all member examples Tanzania from Rwanda, Burundi and DRC – Chad from Sudan, Kenya from Somalia.

International peace and understanding

  1. Causes of conflicts in Africa

    A conflict is the term which includes the actions, propagandist, the diplomatic,commercial or military threats and punishments that the contending parties take towards each other.
    Conflicts can either be involving four levels, namely, societal, communal,interstate, and interpersonal or conflicts are grouped into five levels: (1) those among communities/ groups within the state: (2) those between communities across national borders: (3) those between communities and central governments: (4) those between communities and multinational corporations:and (5) those between governments. It needs to be pointed out from the outset that overlaps can occur in this categorization, but the division can assist in identifying some of the complex ramifications through which conflicts are expressed in Africa.The escalating problems of conflicts in Africa can be attributed to be the following:
    1. Problems  associated with land scarcity: difficulties arising from conflicting laws governing land tenure: boundary disputes and rival claims to specific portions of land: demands for a review of “landlord- tenant” arrangements over land ownership: the clash of spiritual considerations with political and economic realities: complaints over government’s land regulatory policies: complexities of massive human influx: and conflicts arising from land and labor relations.2. Self-interests of some individuals: As a factor for fueling conflicts,oil in Nigeria, oil and diamonds in Angola, rubber and timber in Liberia, diamonds in Sierra Leone, and land in Zimbabwe, etc. have become one of the most controversial issues in Africa, especially through the increase in the number of armed groups exploiting such natural resources to advance their desire for self-determination or pursue other self-interest. For example, from Angola and Liberia to DRC and Sierra Leone, armed groups have exploited the natural resources inside their territories and have initiated constant wars against their respective governments.

    3. The desire to control regions endowed with natural resources: The desire to control region endowed with natural resources has always increased  the determination with which warring sides instigate wars, resulting in an increase of casualty figures. In all major conflicts, the location of natural resources has always been a prime target for warring sides, and battles fought over these sites are often some of the fiercest. An example that quickly comes to mind here is the struggle for the control of the mineral-rich Kisangani in the DRC between the forces of Uganda and Rwanda. Another example can be seen in Angola, where the northeastern provinces of Luanda Norte and Luanda Sul, the location of the country’s diamond deposits, were among the most highly contested sections of the country during the civil war.

    4. Colonial boundaries and inter regional conflict. For example, in Kenya and Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Kenya and Uganda, Cameroon and Nigeria as well as Uganda and Tanzania.

    5. Corruption, nepotism and lack of transparency in public offices. These have led to embezzlement in public funds and uneven distribution of national resources. Some people are segregated from the the national cake and hence this makes them to fight against the domination.

    6. Tribalism, regionalism and religious differences. For example, Nigeria Muslims against Christians: in Uganda the central region against the northern part, in Burundi Tutsi against Hutu.

    7. Weak economic base or poverty. This has been the root cause of civil ears and instability in Africa. Many Africans have turned against their government accusing them to segregate them from sharing the national cake.

    8. Abuse of human rights like freedom of speech, orbiter arrest, extra judicial killing, etc

    9. Coup d’états in various countries or struggle for power.

    10. Ruling regimes unwilling to step down after elections. This has been due to either vote ringing or clinging to power and this has led to political chaos. For example, Laurent Gbagbo of Ivory Coast refused to step down despite being defeated by his political opponent AlasaneQuwattara during the elections held in November 2010. This led to political chaos and death of people.

    11. Puppetism: Most of the leaders are used by economically powerful countries to foster in stabilities for their gain.

    B. Strategies for conflict resolution

    There are three basic procedures for arranging compromises:

    (i) Negotiation among parties: This procedure involves bilateral or multilateral negotiations among the parties involved.Condition for success of any negotiation is a common interest on the part of the opponents to avoid violence. The bargaining process involves;

  • The establishment of commitments to essential positions.
  • Determination of areas where concessions can be made.
  • Determination of areas where concessions can be made.
  • Commissioning of credible threats and promises.
  • Maintaining patience.

(ii) Mediation: This strategy involves passing messages between the parties to active agreement in the bargaining and attempts to place pressure on the antagonists to accept peace proposals that the mediator has proposed. A mediator can be, fro instance, the Security Council. In this procedure, a third party with no direct interest in the issue intervenes in the bargaining processes.
(iii)Adjudication and arbitration: It is strategy of conflict resolution in which the parties involved in conflict agree to submit the issues under contention to an independent tribunal. The court is supposed to decide the case on the basis of international law and jurisdiction extends only of legal issues such as interpretation of treaty, any question of international law or the existence of breach of an international obligation. The prerequisites of successful adjudication and arbitration include:

  •  The existence of legal issues.
  •  Voluntary submission of the case by both parties involved in the conflict.
  •  Agreement that  settlement
  • Willingness to accept an award rather than bargain for compromise outcome.


What is terrorism?
Is the use or threat of violence by groups of people to create fear for the aim of changing a certain behavior in the society. Terrorists kidnap people, hijack airplanes, set off bombs, set fires and commit Other serious crimes. The goals of terrorist differ from those of other ordinary criminals because most of Criminals want money for personal gains, to terrorist commit crimes to support political causes.

Nature of terrorism

The ‘nature’ of something is generally taken to mean ‘the typical qualities and characteristics of something’. Hence, there are a variety of tributes of terrorism such as:
i.    It is often symbolic in character
ii.   It is often indiscriminate in nature
iii.  It typically focuses on civilian and non-combatant targets of violence.
iv.  It has sometimes provocative and sometimes retributive aims
v.   It causes the disruption of public order and putting in danger of public security.
vi.  It leads to the creation of a climate of fear to influence audience wider than the direct victims.
vii. It disregard the rules of war and the rules of punishment,and
vii. It has an asymmetric character (armed versus unarmed: weak versus strong).

If the nature of terrorism is to be derive from its components, thus, the nature of terrorism can be stated to be an intentional and rational act of violence to cause fear in the large audience or society for the purpose of changing behavior in the audience or society

Causes of terrorism:-

(i) Social and political injustice, people resort to terrorism when they are trying to right what they possessed to be socially and politically wrong. e.g. When they have been stripped off their land or rights.

(ii) Ethnicity, nationalism / separation on aggrieved group may resort to violence for nationalist or separatists reasons. This is taken as a resistance against external oppression e.g. nationalists movements commonly turned to nationalism by being the resort of an extremist function.

(iii) Social stratification inequalities in the distribution of scarcely resources are an important factor for terrorism when the goods are absolutely or relatively.

(iv) Absence of democracy, use of draconian law which oppress population may tempt population of resort to harm the government leaders or government properties.

(v) Dehumanization, the simple minded population may resort to terrorism fighting for being heard, recognized or treated as equal human being seeking liberation from government in power.

(vi) Religious jingoism, some religious groups have a strong belief that their religion is best than the other beliefs so the religious people may use force or violence to pressurize the dominance of that particular religion over the larger group of people in the society.


(i) Death of people, e.g. on 11th Sept. 2001, three airplanes have hijacked by terrorists were by 3000 people died.

(ii) Decline of tourism.

(iii) Unemployment.

(iv) Decline of investments due to increase of insecurity and fear, this leads to economic retardation.

(v) Terrorism has forced many governments in the World to set aside huge budgets for fighting terrorism.

(vi) Destruction of infrastructure following the USA embassy in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi there was destruction of buildings difficult to attain federal level in EAC.

= Tanzania waited more public education objective of goals.

= Tanzania feared their land will be occupied by their counter backs (fellow).

= Feared to lose employment opportunity.

= Political instability in Kenya, Uganda.

= Power mongers, Museveni waits to get power as leader of EAC.

= Economic imbalance.

The role of big powers in maintaining peace and understanding
Big powers of the world especially the developed continue have the following roles in maintaining peace and understanding:

(i)   Developing political relations of equal, mutual trust and seeking common ground while putting aside differences among them.

(ii)  Cooperating worldwide to cope with challenges. For example, fighting against terrorism, environmental pollution, etc.

(iii) Forging deep command and candid disloyal for parties involved in conflicts.

(iv) Advocating the peaceful use of outer space and oppose the intrusion of weapons and an arm race in outer space. For example, in February 2008, China and Russia jointly submitted to the Conference on Disarmament a draft treaty on the prevention of the placement weapons in outer space and the threat or use of military weapons against outer space objects.

(v) Take efforts to combat the illicit trade and Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) through the arms trade treaty.
(vi) Big powers observe in good faith their obligation under the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and Chemical Weapons Convention 9CWC) and support the multilateral effects aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the convention. For example, China USA, Russia, etc. fulfill this.

(vii)     They oppose the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and they actively take part in international non proliferation efforts. For example, China hold that all states should resort to dialogue and negotiation to resolve difference in the field on none-proliferation

(viii)    Holding joint counter –terrorism military exercises. For example, In August 2007, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan , Tajikistan and Uzbekistan held a joint counter terrorism military exercise in the
Xinjiang Uygur in the task of combating terrorism20

The historical background to the United Nations and its objectives.

The world experienced many tensions, conflicts and threats from big nations such as Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Australia, Hungary and Japan in 1900s. The tension among these nations led to First World War (1914-1918) and Second World War (1939-1945).
The peaceful atmosphere of the world War disrupted as battle and deaths prevailed. Period between the First World War was characterized by efforts of the concerned big state to look at the mean through which worldwide peace and can be maintained.

After the First World War, the League of Nations was formed in1919. Its major task was to supervise peace in the world by controlling the aggressive nations such as Germany and Italy. However, the League of Nations proved to be a toothless dog that could bark without biting since aggressive actions continue and rearmament progressed. These actions led to the outbreak of the

20Chine’s National Defense in 2008 : Information from Office of the State Council of the people’s Republic of China

Second World War. After the nations had proved failure and had to be changed or transformed to United Nations organization (UNO). Its major tasks, like the predecessor was to make sure that there is no occurrence of another world war. The UNO thus came into existence on 24th Oct,1945 when five big powers ratified the charter. These were China, France, the Union of soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the United Kingdom and the USA.

The role of United Nations in maintaining peace and Understanding
i. Since 1988, the UN has played an instrumental role in bringing about settlements to long running civil wars and foreign armed intervention. For example, UN in Afghanistan, Mozambique, Elsalvador, Namibia, Angola, etc.

ii. Influencing decolonization and writing constitutions organizing and monitoring election as well as establishing administrative and financial organs for the new states
iii. To handle armed conflicts
iv. To invoke sanctions against aggressive stste
v. To settle some disputes in the world
vi. To control armament in the world
vii. To fight for human rights in the world
viii. To promote environmental conservation
ix. To fight against terrorism


Meaning of Globalization

– Globalization refers to the integration of different parts of the world into a global village. It involves integration of economy, politics, culture, science and technology among nations. Globalization is driven by international trade investment information and technology.

Origin of globalization

Historically, globalization is not new phenomenon. The interconnectedness and interdependence of the world between its different social, political and economic components started as far back as during the European mercantile period(1500-17500 A.D) and has continued up to the present.
During the European mercantile period, European merchants crossed their borders and conducted trade in other parts of the world like Africa. Asia and Latin America. The event of slave trade and the exportation of Africans from their continent to other continents, notably the Americas linked Africa more and more with outside world. All these activities were demonstrations of globalization at that time.

Furthermore, the event of the Second World War (1939-1945) also accelerated globalization in that after that war the world become more and more interlinked at the economic level. For example, USA assisted the war ruined economy of Western European nations from collapsing. In 1947 USA extended an economic recovery programme (Marshal Plan) to Western European countries. USA and European countries become closer allies not only economical but also politically since both of them were capitalists.

In the 198s there was a historical point of departure. The international politics not only posed economic and social transformation but also nation’s balance of power. Socialism and capitalism ideologies divided the world into two antagonistic camps, namely the capitalist bloc led by USA and the socialist bloc led by Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR). This was during Cold war period that lasted from 1945 to early 1990s. From early 1990s socialism fell in Russia (the first socialist nation in the world). This paved way to the rapid spread of capitalist ideologies among different countries of the world. Since the early 1990s globalization has quickly touched the entire World in terms of advancement of science and technology. All these changes have brought together people from all different nations of the world to operate and work together as one village.

Driving forces of Globalization:-

  1. Advancement in science and technology. This has contribute greatly to the development of global inter connectedness of ward society into a global village.
  2. Free market economic system, this is characterized by profit maximization to generate capital for invest.
  3. Advancement in Education, Education contribute to the development of science and technology and there is integrations of people from far distance i.e. University
  4. Movement of the people from one country to another, e.g. Tourist, business man, diplomats.
  5. Finance – there is a global flow of money driven by interconnected currency market, stock exchange and etc. the flow of money is facilitated by IMF and WB.
  6. Democratization in form of multi partism and good governance.

Feature /Aspects globalization

As an economic, political and social phenomenon globalization is associated with the following major aspects:
(i) Information and communication technology: Globalization is characterized advancement of information and communications technology. For example, computer screen, radio, newspapers, televisions and mobile phones.

(ii) Movement of people: There have been increasing movements of people from one country to another. These people include tourists, immigrants, refugees, business travelers and diplomats. Hence, these movements, make the world to be interconnected.

(iii) Spread of ideas and ideology: Spread of knowledge, ideas, information and ideologies have been integral aspect of globalization. Direct foreign investment brings both physical capital and technical skills on production methods managerial skills, marketing skills and global economic policies. Spread of technical know-how, goes hand in hand with diffusion of political ideologies. For example, multiparty democracy has become worldwide political ideology.

(iv) Free market economy: Globalization has brought about the integration of international political economy through inter-financial institutional policies and international trade. The main emphasis is to minimize the direct involvement of government in economic production.

(v) Financial globalization:
There is a global flow of money driven by interconnected currency market stock exchanges and commodity market stock exchanges. The flow of money is also facilitated by international financial institutions such as international monetary fund (IMF) and the World Bank.

The  Influence of globalization  on social, political and Economic Reforms in Tanzania

The Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)

Structural Adjustment Programmes refer to the list of budgetary and policy changes given by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank (WB) as prior conditions to be met by developing countries to qualify for a loan, grant or aid. These conditional ties typically include: reducing barriers to trade, and capital flows and tax increase as well as reduction in government expenditure.

Objective of SAPs

i. General poverty reduction by improving the living standards of the people in the Least Developed countries .

ii. Improve the public investment programmes.

iii. Agricultural sector reforms, market liberalization and institutional reforms.

iv. Improving sectoral resource allocation and mobilizing domestic resources and restoring growth to the economy.

v. Devaluation of local currency for eliminating exchange rate distortions in order to raise the domestic currency price

vi. Tax reduction on imports and elimination of barriers or restrictions in trade sector.

vii. Rationalization of public sector to enhance employment opportunities.

Factors that led the emergence of Structural Adjustment Programmes

i. Economic crisis: The worldwide oil shocks of 1973 led to the backsliding of the economies of developing countries as this was accelerated by poor economic policies. Per capital income and Gross Domdec Product (GDP) declined rapidly for most of sub-Sahar Africa countries. Hence, the SAPs emerged out of the western financiers’ tune to the poor countries as they requested for loan in order to revamp their dwindling economy.

ii. The increase of external dept within the region: The increase of external debt within the region made many Africa countries fail to improve their economic growth. For example, around 1980s the external debt reached U$D 129 billion. Hence, they were to fulfill these conditional ties in order to get loan.

iii. Poor delivery of services. Poor salaries and non-compliance with financial order plunged developing countries into the unkind Structural Adjustment Progammes. The governments were accused of being blotted with too many people doing very little work. Hence, failure of government to provide services to the citizens and overburdened structural systems led to introduction of SAPs by donor countries.

iv. Falling of Educational Standards of all leves. Most Africans failed to afford the cost of education due to poor economy.

Principles of structural Adjustment Programmes

1. Redefining the roles of the Government: The governments had to embark on supervisory and regulatory roles. To do this the roles of the governments were to be putting favorable policies in place and provision of a conducive investment environment for local and foreign investment.

2. Redundancy and reduction of workers

3. The government had to transform the economy from centrally planned public owned economy into market driven sector led economy. The states were required to eliminate tariffs, reduce taxes and promote the role of private sector in the export trade and liberalization of domestic retail and whole sale trade.

4. Reduction of public expenditures in social services by introducing cost sharing policies in all social services such as education, health, water, etc. Which were formerly provided freely by the government.

5. The governments to withdraw from providing agricultural incentives like subsidies to farmers. The agricultural sector was to be under privatization to minimize the government expenditures.

6. Privatization of public owned enterprises. The intention was to consolidate and ensure effective performance in the trade sales and joint ventures.

7. Devaluation of currency Achievements of structural Adjustment Programme

Achievements of structural Adjustment Programmes

i. The formation of adjustment programmes and policies with the intention of economic sustainability, efficiency and growth. Structural adjustment programmes have raised the standard of people in the respective countries through privatization policy.

ii. Investment performance improved mostly in strong reforms in the years between 1980-1984-1987.

iii. Average annual export growth rates rose by 5-6% in strong reforms from1980 to 1987.

iv. In countries where there were strong reforms, agricultural production, exports, investments and consumptions increased during 1985-1987.

v. Exchange rates grew in some Africa countries for example, Nigeria witnessed increased prices and exchange rate in 1980 where regional output was 50% and increased to 86% in 1987.

Failures of Structural Adjustment Programmes

i. Structural Adjustment Programmes failed to implant most of the predetermined objectives and principal to the developing countries and instead these have accelerated the rate of poverty in rural areas. This has mainly been due to the fall of agricultural sector which is the backbone of economy of most developing countries.

ii. Diversification of economy is still low due to unstable economy due to the fact that low capital earnings in the developing countries tend to be directed to different social-economic issues.

iii. Export capital and investment capital ratio is still low in developing countries especially in the sub-Sahara African countries. This is because the conditionalities issued by the IMF and World Bank to the developing countries affect the capacity of ivesting the imported capital.

iv. Agricultural and industrial products are still not satisfactory due to the improper investment and inadequate technology .

A: Privatization

(a) Meaning

Privatization refers to the process of transferring assets and activities of public sector to be run by the private sectors or individuals. Privatization is one of the results of Structural Adjustment Programmes which has been emphasized by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank (WB) and donors from abroad such as Britain, France, USA, Denmark and Germany.

(b) The objectives of Privatization

i. To create more market oriented economy where those privatized firms will participate in the stock market.

ii. To improve productivity of economy and efficiency of privatized parastatals.

iii. To secure and enhance access to foreign markets, capital and technology through attracting managerial and technological resources from the private sector.

iv. To broaden share and ownership through equal provision of public services to all levels.

v. To reduce the overwhelming and challenging increase of public dept.

vi. To preserve the goal of self-reliance

C.Measures Taken to enhance Privatization

i. To improve the operational efficiency of enterprises and their contribution to the national economy by selling them to private investors.

ii. To reduce the burden of parastatal enterprises to depend on the government budget.

iii. To sell parastatal enterprises to private investor so as to expand the role private sectors in the economy and permit the government to concentrate on core functions due to the relieved burden of dealing with production activities.

iv. To encourage wider participation in the ownership of private companies and management of business by selling and telling private investors engage in production.

Advantage of Privatization

i. It has increased flexibility due to the reduction of bureaucratic complexity and procedures in order to improve the national economy.

ii. It has reduced costs resulting from inefficiency in production through competitive processes.

iii. Privatization has led to the improvement and rise of competition among the existing private organizations and in the public sectors.

iv. It has met demands beyond the current government capacity because the private sectors encourage competition which increase the level of productivity and efficiency.

v. Privatization provides clients with more choice of options where they can satisfy in terms of contract, salaries and working conditions.

Disadvantage of privatization

i. Increase of unemployment to the indigenous: Privatization has increased unemployment of indigenous people. This is because most of the people come from outside to work. When any public enterprise is privatized it is accompanied with massive redundancy of the previously employed people.

ii. Fall in agricultural sector. It has led to the fall in agricultural sector due to the withdrawal of the government from providing incentives.

iii. Reduction of quality of services. Privatization has increased temptation to reduce quality of services in order to reduce costs and maximize profit.

iv. Increase of the rate of moral erosion: Privatization increases the rate of moral erosion due to its policy of free trade. The private companies tend to import all goods without considering consumers. For example, pornographic pictures and other related films or VCD/DVD which affect the younger generation.

v. Increase the rate of poverty: Privatization policy increases the rate of poverty to people living in Rural people depend on agriculture for the better quality of their life.

B. Trade liberalization (free trade)

Trade liberalization refers to the reduction of tariffs and trade barriers to permit more foreign competition and foreign investment in the economy. It is a term which describes complete of partial elimination of trade restrictions through elimination and reduction of trade barriers such as quotas and tariffs.

Free trade. Is the unhindered flow of goods and services between and/or among countries and is a name given to economic policies and parties supporting increases in such trade. E.g. Tanzania introduced trade liberalization as from mid-1980’s following the IMF conditionalities to be fulfilled for a country to qualify to be given loan or grant.

C. Democratisation process

The democratisation process is looking at the following basic pr: cir les:

i. Free and fair political competition: A free and fair election is the situation where by choosing of leaders is done democratically. In order to be free and fair elections there ought to be the following requirements:

• Competitive: Elections for holding different political positions such as presidential, Parliamentary, Councilor or Local Government political position must involve different political parties which compete to win such positions.

• Periodic: Elections need to be carried out in a specified period for all political leadership authorities. In Tanzania, General Elections are conducted after every five years. For example, a president, Member of parliament or Member of House of Representatives ( in Tanzania Isles) or a Councilor stays in power for a five year term. A president can be elected for tenure of two consecutive terms while other posts have no limit for one to contest for leadership.

• Inclusive: Elections must include or involve a large number of adult populations who qualify to be registered as voters.

• Definitive: Elections must aim at getting rulers who must have legitimate power or authority to direct other people towards better national development.

• Elections must ensure that the electorates are not limited in selecting candidates’ or even in making decisions.

ii. Political tolerance: Political tolerance is the ability to accept different political points of view of other people. The majority group has a duty to respect convictions and ways of live of the minorities.

iii. Citizen participation: Citizens participation includes standing for elections, debating issues, voting on elections, gathering for community meeting s, Joining political parties and organization, protesting and paying taxes.

iv. Equality: This means that people are valued equally. They have equal opportunities. No one is discriminated against.

v. Accountability: Appointed and elected officials must make decisions and perform their duties according to the wishes of the people not for their own interests.

vi. Smooth transfer of power: There needs to be a well-established and transparent system of transferring power from one political party or regime to another.

vii. Economic Freedom: This means that the Government should allow people to own private property and businesses. People can choose work and join trade unions. There should be free markets. The state should not control the economy.

viii. Control of the power abuse: Elected and public officials should be prevented from misusing their power .e.g. There must be in place mechanisms to control corruption.

ix. Inclusion of a bill of rights in the constitution: A bill of rights is a list of rights and freedom guaranteed to all citizens in a country. The billof rights limits the power of government. It may also impose obligations on individuals and organizations.

x. The rule of law: It means no one is above the law: not even an elected president. Everyone must obey the law and if one violates the law he/she must be held accountable. xi. Sovereignty: Sovereignty means the freedom to decide and execute domestic and foreign policies without interference from another country. Therefore a neo-colony can hardly exercise democracy.

xi. Sovereignty: Sovereignty means the freedom to decide and execute domestic and foreign policies without interference from another country. Therefore a neo -colony can hardly exercise democracy.
Comparison and difference between idealism and materialism:-


Impact of globalization in Tanzania can either be political, economy,social or cultural.
Globalization has positive and negative effects which can be analyzed economically, politically and socially as follow:
A. Social –economic effects
I. Positive Effects:

i. Stimulating utilization of natural resources: Through trade liberation and free market economy globalization has stimulated much utilization of natural resources. There are many companies which invest natural resources. For example, mining companies in Mwadui, Bulyanhulu, Geita, Nzega, etc enable Tanzania to utilize her resources for development of her people.

ii. Making production and transportation of goods easier and faster than before: Globalisation has made production and transportation of goods easier and faster than ever before. It enables Tanzania to get different to get different goods from any corner of the world. For example, getting goods such as computers, mobile phones, food stuffs, medicines, automobile, chemicals, etc.

iii. Creating employment opportunities: Globalization creates employment opportunities for many people. For example, telecommunication has contributed significantly to the employment creation of both direct and indirect jobs. The indirect jobs include Tanzanians selling cell-phone, airtime, cell phone battery charging services, providing call services, money transfer, ect while direct jobs include different people employed to provide services in telecommunication companies like Vodacom, TTCL Mobile, Airtel, Zantel Mobile, Sasatel, Tigo, ect

iv. Improvement of social services: Through liberalization of social services there is a wide spread of private schools, hospitals and dispensaries which provide servide services to people and hence improving their well-being

II. Negative Effects:
i. Decline and underdevelopment of industrial sector: For developing countries like Tanzania, free trade causes the decline and underdevelopment of industrial sectors and local technology. Decline of industrial sector and local technology is due to influx of goods from outside whose are low yet with higher quality than local googs.

ii. Exploitation of the poor countries: Presence of multinational companies in Tanzania if not well controlled may acquire super profit through exploiting citizens thus leaving them poor.

iii. Source of unemployment: Globalisation sometimes creates unemployment. With growth of technology, machines greatly replace human labour. Therefore, unemployment sometime increases. For example, the introduction of electronic devices like computer technology and its programmes have led to eviction of many Tanzanians from their jobs.

iv. Widening the gap between developed and developing countries: Though privatization and capital mobility, Northern countries (Europe, North America) undermine Southern Countries (Africa, Asia, South Amerca) through unequal exchange. Most of the potential natural resources in developing countries are owned by companies from developed countries. Thus undermining local communities.

v. Environmental degradation: Advancement in technology causes environment degradation. Technological advancement in mining sector, agriculture, fishing, transport systems and industrial sectors threatens environmental quality of Tanzania.

B. Political effects of globalization

I: Positive Effects

(i) Changes in the content of domestic law. For example, Tanzania makes laws which comply with international laws and therefore she abides by them in such a way that she can no longer mistreat her citizens the way she wishes.

(ii) Integration of Tanzania into global politics: Under globalization Tanzania is integrated into world political systems through international agencies and organization.

(iii) Formation of strong political organization: Globalization has made it necessary for poor countries to form strong political organization as a way of minimizing negative impact of Globalization. Formation of way of minimizing negative impact of Globalization. Formation of Africa Union (AU), EAC, ECT.

(iv) Speeding up the democratization process in Tanzania: Globalization has speeded up the democratization process in Tanzania. Tanzania is adopting global democratic principles such of rule of law, transparency, and accountability and is trying to implement these aspects as a way of promoting democracy.

II: Negative Effects

(i) Centralization of political power in biggest capitalist powers: There has been centralization of political power. This situation reduces political sovereignty of poor countries like Tanzania.

(ii) Increase of terrorist attacks: Tanzania has been affected by global political disorders and terrorism Bombing of USA embassy in Dar essalaam due to the conflict which involved USA and AL- Qaeda terrorists who are against USA imperialism.

(iii) Undermining effort of poor countries to form strong political organization: Globalisation is pushing down effort by poor countries to form strong political organization such as Africa Union (AU) and East Africa Community. (EAC.

(iv) Creating chaos in the country: In some cases globalization with its related political propandas such as multipartism, transparency, accountability, rule of law and others creat chaos in the country. Some politicians manipulate these agendas and lead to insecurity in the county.

C. Cultural effects of globalization
I: Positive Effects

i. Enabling diffusion of belief and values in different world societies . Globalization has made diffusion of beliefs and value in various societies of the world.

ii. Integration of all cultural practices in the world: Globalization has managed to integrate all culture practices in the world through the development of information and communication technology like internet, Fax machines, satellites and cable TV E.g. Those culture practices are such as sports and games, music, etc.

iii. Revealing out some bad cultural practices: Globalization has revealed out some bad culture practices which have been performed by some communities. For example, Female Genital mutilation is globally condemned with great emphasis.

iv. Expansion of the great world religious institutions: The expansion of the great world religious institutions particularly in Africa and Asia has transformed the social-cultural value of these countries into modern and acceptable ones. For example, the spread of churches and mosques in Tanzania has increased the work of fighting against bad cultural practices like Female Genital Mutilation, forced marriages, harassment of women, etc.

II. Negative Effect on culture

(i) Sweeping away cultural boundaries: Globalization has swept away cultural boundaries which existed. This is done by the use of advanced information and communication technology such as Televisions, radio, internets and magazines. This has made most Tanzanians to be influenced by western ways of life.

(ii) Increase of violence and prostitution: Cultural-globalization ties have been responsible for violence , prostitution and other related behavior which increase as one more integrated into globalization.

(iii) Undermining of Africa native languages: Africa native languages including Kiswahili have been undermined by English language. English has become a globalised language such that it is conceived by many Tanzanians that speaking English is a sign of civilization. By so doing, local languages including Kiswahili are being abandoned or left to be used by less educated people.

(iv) Replacing traditional songs with western ones: Some effects of globalization may be experienced in the assessment of pre-existing Africa traditional songs and ceremonies which are being replaced by western styles and contents like kitchen parties (for women) and beauty pageants

D: Impact of globalization on Environment

(i) Increase of pollution; Globalization has increased pollution due to constant emission of toxic gases from heavy industries. For example, there has been air pollution due heavy smoke from industries which has subsequent impact on human life and other living organism.

(ii) Increase of deforestation: Globalization has increased deforestation due to permanent clearing of forests for mining activities, construction of road, railway, dams, industries and establishment of settlement areas.

(iii) Global warming: Globalization has increased global warming due to gradual increase of temperature regime on the earth at a global level caused by emission of gases produced by heavy industries, cars. And moving ships. These gases prevent the escaping of heat from the earth’s surface to the atmosphere .

(iv) Greenhouse effect: Greenhouse effect refers to the process of trapping of gases and heat at the atmosphere and in layer around the earth. This problem results from the on-going globalization. The major source of greenhouse effects is gases like chlorofluorocarbons 9CFCs) produced much by refrigerators, chlorine, nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)


–  Both are philosophical concept which explains about the existence of things in the world.

–  Both are branches of metaphysics, which is the one of the branch of traditional philosophy.

–  Both have tried to explain the reality, no any branch comes with conclusion in order to make people appreciate.

–  Both tried to argue about education and the whole process of learning.

–  Both originated from philosophy.


Are the abilities for adaptive and positive behaviors that enable individuals to deal effectively and efficiently with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Generally life skills are the strategies or techniques that a person must pass in order to perform his or her activities successfully.

What is life?

Life = existence + activities.

Skills – are learning abilities to carry out the activities efficiently and effectively.

Skills – education, training and experience.

The core skills of life skills are;

  1. Decision making.
  2. Problem solving skills. Realize actual situation and realize the desired outcomes/ situation. Take action come out with strategies to take you to your desired destination.

iii. Critical thinking skills.

  1. DECISION MAKING SKILLS – the ability to evaluate information and advice to make informed decisions, assess the advantage and disadvantages of different options, change decisions to adopt new situations and plan for the future.2. CRITICAL THINKING – the ability to analyze social issues/ influences as well as cultural influences on attitudes, values, behaviors, injustice, stigma, explore and evaluation.3. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS – Ability for understanding how others are communicating.
    4. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS – Ability to build the positive relationships with others.
    5. EMPATHY – Ability of putting oneself in other person’s shoes, in order to understand them well.
    6. COPING WITH EMOTIONS AND STRESS – Ability to deal with threats and challenges
    7. SELF AWARENESS – Ability to identify personal strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities, clarify personal values and beliefs and recognize personal worth and personal happiness.


  • Moral – ethical principle that distinguishes what is right and what is wrong.
  • Ethics – are the fundamental moral principles and rules that guide people in performing their activities. Every institution or profession has its professional code of conduct for behavioral guidance on its members.
  • Moral value means: Things held to be right or wrong desirable or undesirable. They are acquired through teaching and inheriting from parent and the society.
  • Value – All good practices in any society.

Character – involves good habits and civil virtues which hold a community together and allow us to live together in harmony.

Moral values are the universal accepted principles that govern the day to day living of life.




-Are the rules that guide a person. A child growing up in a family is introduced to various values held by the family members. Children get to learn things from their peers or elders in not appropriate behaviors.


-Are the rules or values that are considered important by the member of the family. Most of the families will emphasize the basic values. On the other side most families have a set of values that are to the members of that family.


-Are the values held by all members of the society or community, they are formulated based on religious doctrines or political ideology. These values are maintained through the use of law, norms and rule established by that large group.


I.)  Moral judgment involves on evaluation of actions with respect to norms and values established in a society.

→Moral Judgment competence; Ability to apply/ use moral orientations and principles in a consistent and differentiated manner in varying social institutions.

II.) Moral action; An action that does not involve the violation of another person’s rights

III.) Moral motivation; It involves a response/reward from our actions or behavior in our daily life.


i.)  Moral values help society to maintain peace and harmony.

ii.) They help people to abandon feelings of anger against themselves.

iii.) They help to promote fairness and justice in society.

iv.)  They help people to understand their limitations and other people’s limitations on different matters/phenomena.

v.)  They help people to overcome any threat and challenge because people will not let fear hold them back and therefore they will be able to achieve their objectives successful.

vi.) They help members of the society to promote socio-economic development.

vii.) Moral values help people in a society to advance in their personality and professional life.

viii.) They help to promote unity, love and cooperation among members of the society.
ix)   They help to reduce social crimes and evils in the society

– The erosion of moral values is growing throughout the world. The world we live in is changing rapidly. Towns and cities are growing and the the lifestyles of the people who are living in them are changing too. The decay of moral values certainly does erode the strength of the society, because morals are the social strength


i.)  Fall of human dignity. Actions practices devaluing humanity(humans) respect.

ii.) The growth of individualism, Involves the practice or actions of considering one’s needs/priorities before community or others needs.

iii.) Increase of number of divorces.

iv.) Violation of professional code of conduct. Eg. Corruption

v.) Increase of dropouts in schools.
vi) Arrogance ; Feeling that one is more importance than other
vii) Excessive drinking over feeling
viii) Discrimination practice of treating some one or a particular group of people less fairly than other


i)Diffusion of ideas, beliefs and ideologies(cultural change)

-in a positive way diffusion of ideas help peoples to get new knowledge and increase people’s thinking ability or ways of thinking but on the other side other people tend to imitate immoral practices or values such as homo sexuality,fighting, improper dressing, prostitution, drug abuse etc.

  1. ii) Development of ICT (Technological change)

-in positive side development of ICT is very important for society’s development in its all spheres of life but on the other side many people especially the use tend to misuse the electronic devices by imitating immoral practices like drug trafficking, cyber crimes, sexual relation before marriage, improper dressing, sending to one another naked pictures, watching pornographic movies etc

iii) Development of Urbanization

-it leads to occurrence of immoral practices/ actions due to congestion of people with different social statues and values, unemployment problems, housing problems etc then others tend to engage in immoral practices prostitution, theft, killing etc so that to run their life.

  1. iv) Market system

-Presence of capitalist economy characterized by free market economy and profit maximization, the producers ignore the moral values for the purpose of getting super profit for instance some produces employ children (child labor) contrary to the society’s norms and law.

  1. v) Growth of democratization

-other people misuse the aspects of democracy like individual freedom, they ignore the ethical principles and rules in order to exercise their freedom, they ignore limitation on individual freedom, also people are killed when they engage in political demonstration etc.

  1. vi) Individual over ambitious desire

-other people purposeful engage in immoral practices in order to become rich in a short period of time.

vii) Exposure to drugs

-other people enter in immoral practices because of the influence of drugs like cocaine, marijuana etc. The drug users are ready steel the property of other people so as to get money for buying drugs.

viii) Decline in religious upbringing

-other religions teach their fellows to perform suicide so that to reach to a good place in heaven when they die, hence people engage in terrorist attacks etc.

  1. ix) Genetic influence

-others are engaging in immoral practices due to the influence of genetic, they biologically inherit the character of their elders or parents, characters like telling lies, prostitution etc

  1. x) Socio-economic influence

-poverty also influences other people to engage in immoral practices such as prostitution, stealing et



-The erosion of moral values is growing throughout the world. The world we live in is changing rapidly. Towns and cities are growing and the lifestyles of the people who are living in them are changing too. The decay of moral values certainly does erode the strength of the society, because morals are the social strength.



  1. i) Increase of the number of crime cases
    In the society as people purposeful engage in immoral practices such as robbery, kidnapping, killing, drug & human trafficking, corruption etc.
  2. ii) The strength of the society is being eroded.

-The society lacks peace, unity and justice. Many people come to ignore the available social norms and rules. Every thinks for his or her own family as a result unity and love and cooperation come to disappear.

iii) Violation of people’s rights

-other people come to ignore limitations to individual freedom, they interfere the rights of others just to satisfy their own desire in immoral way. This makes other people not to have access to education or health services. For instance some parents in rural areas for their daughters to get marriage while they’re still young. They stop them to attend schools so that to live with men/ husbands.

  1. iv) Increase of the income gap between the poor and the rich

-other people ignore the available ethical principles because of the desire accumulate a lot of wealth for their own; they do not consider the needs of others. The policies and laws are made in such a way that they favor the few And undermine majority as a result the few become more rich and majority become poor and poor. For instance, some leaders in government’s departments distribute national resources such funds unfairly in order to benefit their areas where they come from and make other areas undeveloped.

  1. v) Unequal and unfair distribution of National resources

For instance, some leaders in government’s departments distribute national resources such funds unfairly in order to benefit their areas where they come from and make other areas undeveloped.

  1. vi) Poor performance in primary and secondary schools in internal and national examination

-many researches show that there is a close relationship between performance and rate of discipline among students. According to many academic researches, the students who have good discipline they perform better academically than students with poor discipline.

vii) Increase of dropouts in schools

-many student are losing their opportunity or right to get education because of engaging in immoral practices or behavior such as sex before time, drug abuse, forced marriage etc

viii) Increase of truancy in schools

-other students/ pupils become truants because of engaging in immoral practices such as attending night clubs, doing business, prostitution etc

  1. ix) Disappearance of justice & fairness in social, legal, political and economic institutions

-immoral practices such corruption in legal institutions make poor people to lose their rights simply because they don’t have money to corrupt officials in courts.


Cultural refers to the ideas, beliefs and customs that are shared and accepted by people in a given society.  It is time relevant, changing with circumstances.
The change of the ideas and beliefs shared by people in a particular society signifies that always not static but dynamic

Cultural  Change I the process of social adaption of new circumstances brought by external or internal forces like introducing new technology, new religion., new language and increasing social- economic development of productive forces within societies.

Factor influencing cultural change include the following
(i) Migration / Immigration: Migration is the movement of people from one place to another such as from rural to urban and from one country to another.  A person may be affected by the ways of life the area of destination.  This is because he/she must imitate certain system of his or her residents so as to cope with them.  For example people from rural areas tend to be absorbed by town cultural because in town traditional cultural is normally abandoned.

ii)   Communication;People communicate with others from different parts of the world.  Through communication, people imitate new cultural from different groups.  This process makes cultural to change because of learning new ways of life

iii)  Social, political , cultural and economic; Liberalization means removing something that brings restrictions political, economically and socially. Free market economy leads to influx of goods which may adversely affect cultural of indigenous people.

iv)  Influence of socialization agents: Socialization agents include peer groups , schools, religion and mass media.  These are instruments through which a person can learn and get different information about a society. Mass media such as magazine , newspaper radio, and television make us to learn new system of life which are not present in the society.  For example wearing styles, shaving styles, application of decoration and cosmetics for beauty.

Advantage of cultural change
i) It helps man to master his environment better due to acquisition of new life skills.
ii) New technology improves the welfare of the people economically, politically, socially, etc.
iii) It helps man acquire new skills , behavior, and knowledge.  Hence , mastery of his social, political and economic life.
iv) Through education , society is exposed to external cultural contrast and challenge.

Disadvantage of cultural change
i) The education and knowledge acquired from outside may conflict with tribal cultural and traditions.  Hence, create passivity from the concerned tribes.
ii) Strategic customs like female short dress, tight clothes. etc. have been a sources of problems. For example , temptation to men towards offences like rape.

Technology change and Moral values.
The question is whether is conflict between the technological change values and the moral values of society. Has it done more good than him? If this is taken into account the following are effects of technological change on moral values.
i) Increase of social vices: The uses of internet , television, videos, and pornographic picture has led to increase of bad behavior such as murder, violence, robbery, prostitution, drug abuse and racial segregation.

ii) Environmental destruction: The invention of nuclear bomb has negative impact on societal values of taking care of environment since the nuclear wastes are radioactive.

iii) The invention of test tube bases technology: Test tube babies are produced bay taking an egg from a woman and placing it in a container with sperms from a man.  If the egg is fertilized the resulting embryo is placed in the woman’s womb to develop normally , this reduces the dignity of humankind since it alters the natural for fertilization reproductive organs which requires sexual intercourse for fertilization to take place contrary to this it means family ties are not important

iv) Unemployment problem; The use of computer has eliminated many from employment. Lack of employment leads to acts like robbery, prostitution, etc, in the society.

i) Environment conservation
ii) Costs of maintenance are always low
iii) Life span of the various facilities will be prolonged

Leadership ethics refers to identified values at work place such as stewardship, discipline, pursuit of excellence in service, loyalty to government, diligence, integrity, accountability to the public, respect for the law, proper, use of official information, impartiality, punctuality and trust
Thus, a leader working while complying with law is an ethical leader

These effect resulting from failure of political and government leaders to adhere to leadership ethics include the following:
i) Corruption and abuse of public office will be high
ii) Nepotism and red-tape will be rampant
iii) People lose confidence and trust to their government and leaders
iv) Nation fails to derive political goods, protection, social security, the executive will not be able to serve the people and the parliament will not be able to do its versing role
v) Hostility
vi) Immorality
vii) Incivility Rude behavior
viii) Discrimination . Practice of treating dome body or a particular group of people less fairly than others
ix) Aggression; Feelings of anger and hatred that may result in  threatening or violent behavior
x) Arrogance : Feeling that one is more important than other people
xi) The use of foul language


Most of the violent/ ant- social incidences that happen in our societies can be prevented or reduces in the following
i)   Law enforcement and punishment for law breakers
ii)   Adherence to religious teachings.
iii)  Civic education to people to have a good values system

  1. iv)  To discourage importation and uses of drugs
    v)   Tackling the continuing social scourges like poverty+, hunger ,unemployment
    vi)  Individuals to develop a critical thinking mindCULTURAL OF CARE AND MAINTENANCE
    It is a system of planning maintenance which involves inspection, followed by maintenance and modification necessary to be made to  so that property can be used for a long period. Maintenance involves repairing property timely before it gets damaged completely.THE PROCEDURE FOR PREVENTIVE CARE AND MAINTENANCE
    Preventive care should be considered under the following
    Cleanliness of the surroundings
    ii) The frequency of cheek- up and inspection on property
    iii) Maintenance that minimizes the costs of up-keeping of buildings, furniture and fixture
    iv) Regular maintenance that creates a conductive environment to user.
    v) Institutions or public places should have a timetable to ensure preventive care.
    vi) Regular care and maintenance of existing buildings and facilities so as to ensure and prolong the life of buildings and equipment.


    i) Increase in costs of repair. Man – made objects like buildings, roads, railways and property like books and domestic items need to be repaired immediately when damages occurs.  Otherwise they will cost much if they are neglecting.
    ii) Environmental degradation; This is caused by deforestation, soil erosion, water erosion and air pollution. Land degradation caused by man should be avoided in order to conserve our  environment .
    iii) Rampant destruction of private and public properties


  1. Personal skills

These skills are such as self- awareness self – steam, assertiveness, copying with emotion, decision making and negotiation to mention just a few

  1. a) Self awareness

– involves the ability of individuals to know and understand their potentialities, feeling, biases, emotions, weaknesses and strengths. People should not live as if there are no reasons to live. People should know that, they have crucial reasons to live and objectives to accomplish so as to make the world as a good place for every person to live.

Self awareness helps a person to identify his/her areas of weakness and strength before taking any decision. It helps a person to understand his/her value and the need of taking care of his/her body or health.

Self awareness helps a person to cope with any situation including emotions. It helps a person to recognize emotions and ways to overcome emotions.

  1. b) Assertiveness

Refers to the individual’s ability to express his/her emotions and needs without violating the rights of others and without being aggressive. Assertiveness is built by self esteem. It helps a person to have ability to respond confidently to any situation. It gives courage to a person to find information or facts before making any decision. It makes a person to think and work for better results. Assertiveness makes a person to value and respect other people.

  1. c) Self esteem:

It is acceptance of the way we are so one becomes proud on oneself. If a person has high self esteem, he/she can not engage in any attempt of changing her/his physical structure, the color of the skin, the style of the hair etc.

  1. d) Coping with emotion/ stress:

Emotions are strong feelings such as fear, love, anger, shyness and the desire to be accepted or loved. Each individual has emotions. Emotions are unpredictable and often lead to actions that are not based on reasoning. On the other side,Stress is the body’s reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response. Stress can be caused by examination fever, broken relationship, family problems, unwanted pregnancies, death of a friend of family member etc. stress may result to pressure, mental disorder, heart attack etc.

Skills for coping with stress/emotions help an individual to identify or recognize stress/ emotion, understanding the causes and effects of stress/ emotion and make a right decision that take account of them. Failure to cope with stress/ emotions may lead to suicide, fighting, murder, divorce, pressure, heart attack, strokes, death etc.

  1. e) Analytical skill:

Is the ability to visualize, articulate, and solve both complex and uncomplicated problems and concepts and make decisions that are sensible based on available information. Such skills include the ability to apply logical thinking, to gathering and analyzing information, designing and testing solutions to problems, and formulating plans.

  1. f) Creative thinking skills:

Are the abilities that involve the generation of new ideas within or across domains of knowledge, established symbolic rules and procedures, It usually involves the behaviors of preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation, elaboration, and communication.

Creative thinking skills help individuals or learners to engage in;

  • Bringing together existing ideas into new configurations;
  • Developing new properties or possibilities for something that already exists; and
  • Discovering or imagining something entirely new.
  1. g) Critical thinking skills

-involve the active, persistent, and careful consideration of a belief or form of knowledge, the grounds that support it, and the conclusions that follow.
It involves analyzing and evaluating one’s own thinking and that of others. Critical thinking skills help people to engage in;

  •  Raising vital questions and problems and formulating these clearly and precisely;
  • Gathering and assessing relevant information, and using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively;
  • Reaching well-reasoned conclusions and solutions and testing them against relevant criteria and standards;
  • Openly considering alternative systems of thought; and
  • Effectively communicating to others the analysis of and proposed solutions to complex challenges.
  1. h) Problem solving technique: Is the ability to identify differences between actual state and desired state of affairs and then take the right actions or decision to clear the problem. A problem can be defined as a doubtful or difficult matter requiring a solution or something hard to understand or accomplish or deal with.
    i) Decision making skill:

Ability to evaluate information and advice to make informed decisions, assess advantages and disadvantages of different options, change decision to adapt to new situations, and plan for future.

  1. Interpersonal skills

-are the abilities for building positive relationship with other people. Building positive relationship with other people involves the ability of people to meet and relate with others in various settings. For instance when children grow up, they develop relation with family members, adults, peers and people they meet in life, hence children need to know how to react appropriately in each relationship they develop.

We have cases where children are cheated by adults who pretend to be their friends but with bad intentions. Children end up be mishandled, raped and even murdered. Parents have the responsibility of guiding children build this skill of positive relationship with others.

  1. a) Friendship formation:

Is the ability to understand how friendships are formed, how to form and develop positive friendship. A person should be able to identify and recognize good and bad friendship through studying the behavior, perception and character of persons. A person should be able to resist relationship with people who have developed behaviors like telling lies, stealing, taking alcohol, dangerous sexual behavior( prostitution, anal sex, oral sex & homosexuality) etc.

  1. b) Empathy:

Is the ability of putting oneself in other people’s shoes with the intention of understanding them well and collecting more information about them that will enable a person to make right decisions and helping others overcome different problems and challenges in their life.

  1. c) Peer resistance:

Is the ability to stand up for one’s values and beliefs conflicting ideas from friends or peers. Peers can come with unacceptable or wrong suggestions and may put pressure on one to accept the wrong suggestions. A person needs to defend his or her decision with strong and clear reasons of not accepting that ideas. If possible a person can even decide to stay apart from that group if he will be forced to accept unacceptable practice like taking illegal drugs.

  1. d) Negotiation skills:

Is the ability to compromise on issues without destroying one’s principles, It helps a person to manage to state his or her own position and building mutual understanding with people without fighting or violence. It involves assertiveness, empathy and friendship formation skills.

  1. e) Effective communication:

Is the ability of listening and understanding how others are communicating, as well as realizing how one can communicate in different ways, It is the ability to write, listen, express and use language properly. Effective communication gives a person access to collect information which will enable a person to improve his understanding and ability to make decision.

i) Life skills help to solve problem such as HIV/AIDS pandemic and the related problems.

ii) Life skills lead to the development of social awareness among different people ranging from family to national level.

iii) Personal and interpersonal skills increase the ability to plan a head and choose effective solution to problems.

iv) Personal and interpersonal skills address the needs of people with varying strength and weaknesses. They help to interact with other people appropriately.

v) Personal and interpersonal skills enhance working with a community holistically and with maximum cooperation.

vi) Personal and interpersonal skills are an integral part in preventing persisting problems such as drug abuse, unwanted pregnancies and suicide

vii) Through these lif skills people learn to cooperate manner, bargain collectively, struggle with peer pressure and solve problem.

viii) Personal and interpersonal skills empower the younger generation and assist them in facing the challenging situation in their lives




The ability of an individual or community to depend on one’s own ability and efforts and not depending on another for one’s survival or

Self reliance is the ability, commitment and effort to provide the necessities of a life for self reliance and family. A self reliant person must neither rely on others assistance nor on government assistance, because nobody cares more about helping you or your family or times of difficulties than yourself

Example; you were recently laid off from your job and you need to look for another job if you don’t secure it you cannot feed yourself or your family or pay installments for your home. In such cases you don’t sit down and wait for the job to come to you. You go out and look for it. You do anything you can do in order to survive.

Entrepreneurship is the process of organizing, managing or assuming the risk of business for the sake of profit. The essence of entrepreneurship is the freedom to do what you want or like in order to make profit.

Entrepreneurship is an act of being entrepreneur.

Who is an entrepreneur?

An entrepreneur is the one who bring resources, labor and other assets into combinations that make their value greater than before.

Today, many young people express their motivations for becoming entrepreneurs in terms of satisfaction that entrepreneurship gives them as well as the sense of being in control of their own destinies

Examples of Entrepreneurs

-NimrodiMkono ─   Mkono company and advocates

-Reginald Mengi─ Ippmedia(capital TV, ITV)

-Anthony Dialo─ Sahara communications(kiss FM, RFA)

-YudkasMremi─ Dar express company

-Billgates─ Microsoft cooperation

Generally both self reliant person and entrepreneurs take some initiations for personal and communication development



i.)  Vision with judgment – ability to see opportunities plan for future and make sensible decision

ii.)  Risk taking/ taking calculated risk

iii.)  Optimism – having hope that positive outcomes will be realized

iv.)   Endurance – ability to continue performing activity for a long time without complaining

v.)  Courage – ability to face threats, challenges or new situations without fear

vi.) Uniqueness – ability to perform activities in a different way

vii.) Effective communication

viii.)  Determination – the ability that makes a person to continue performing activity in a difficult situation

ix.) Power of creating cooperation



i.) Where and how they are applied

ii.) How they affect the structure organization and success of small enterprises

iii.) How nations further an entrepreneurship climate


i.)   Through creativity risk taking and opportunity undertaking

ii.)  Through showing open ended opportunity and challenges

iii.)  Through making profit

iv.)  Using the learned skills to make right skills

v.)  Becoming bosses of their own destiny

vi.)  Applying supervision skill for their undertaking

*Entrepreneur can change their strategies so as to maximize profit, can work more hours and change even locality BUT a businessman always does the same thing regardless on profit or loss


i.) Lack of self reliance and entrepreneurship education

ii.) Lack of appropriate identification system

iii.)  Lack of initiatives to face risk in business due to the fear of getting loss

iv.)  Strict or hard conditions put by loan giving institutions – Many youth/entrepreneurs lack security(collateral)

v.)  The nature of innovative skills. Some are new business so it becomes more difficult to plan and understand it compared to a well established business

vi.)   The reluctance of people to accept changes from ways of acting even if better alternative is available

vii.)   Presence of bureaucracy in registration. Some of the projects need to be registered but it can take many months before securing registration or certificate of registration

viii.)  Presence of bureaucracy in the process of requesting loans



i.) Provision of education and training to the youths and entrepreneurs

ii.)   Government should introduce national identification system. This might be seen as an experience exercise, but extremely important in order to enable Tanzania’s to benefit not only from borrowing but also from other public services which they deserve

iii.)  SME/Entrepreneurs should deliberately build their credibility with banks even when they do not need to borrow

iv.) Banks should use a more active approach dealing with SMEs/ entrepreneurs instead of waiting for SMEs to visit banks. They should go out identify potential clients and convince them to work with the banks.

v.)  To improve/modify the school curricular as to accommodate self reliance and entrepreneurship.

vi.) Government should introduce entrepreneurial programs in vocational and technical school

vii.)   Government should establish a regulatory framework which does not favor borrowers in order to give financial institutions the confidence they need to lend

viii.)   Government should simplify tax system and introduce tax incentives to entrepreneurs or SME’s

ix.)  Government should direct the financial institutions to avail financial capital to entrepreneurs with soft loan or less restrict conditions



–  Creates employment opportunity

– Adds to government revenue

– Assists in provision of social services

–  Poverty reduction

–  Individual and national development

–  Decrease the rate of crimes

–  Increase of goods and services production

–  They promote development of science and technology i.e use of ICT

–  Help the government of Tanzania to realize vision 2025, MDG 2015





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