Form four history notes
Changes In Political, Social And Economic Policies In Africa After Independence
Changes in Political, Ideological and Administrative Systems
In 1960‟s many African states started to achieve their political independence. Following this many of the African countries changed their political, social and economic ideology for the sake of attaining developments in their nations after colonialism.
The Factors/ Conditions which led to changes in Political, Ideological and Administrative Systems after Independence
Explain the factors/ conditions which led to changes in political, ideological and administrative systems after independence
Ideology refers to the body of beliefs or principles belonging to an individual or group which guides political and economic system in a given nation for example socialist and capitalist ideology.
During the struggle for independence many African states had developed multiparty political system under capitalist ideology as a system to prepare them for independence. For example in Tanganyika there were U .T .P and T.A.N.U while in Uganda there were U.P.C. and K.Y.
Soon after independence many African states as from 1960-1970‟s most of them started change the political ideology from multiparty under capitalist ideology to singe dominant party under socialist ideology.
Factors for the change of political, ideological and administrative after independence
These factors can be divided into two means internal and external factors
Promotion of unity and solidarity among the Africans, the changes of political party from multiparty to single party system aimed at promoting unity and solidarity among the Africans since they were dominated by single ideology for example in K.A.N.U in Kenya, TANU then 1977 C.C.M. in Tanzania and U.P.C. in Uganda.
Presences of colonial constitution; after independence, many nations continued to base on foreign constitution. For example most of the east and western African countries inherited west minister model of constitution which recognized British monarchy as the head of the state and prime minister was the head of government. So the changes and amendment were to be made in African states constitution in order to copy with the needs of African, in Tanzania constitution amendment started in 1965.
To abolish tribalism; after independence most of African states were divided based on tribal line, which was the root from colonial legacy, because during that time some tribes were much favoured that others. Colonialists favoured some tribes in Africa so as to dominate Africans using divide and rule policy. This led to tribal conflicts in Africa countries. For example Fulani against Igbo in Nigeria, Luo against kikuyu in Kenya. Therefore changes were made to do away with tribalism in Africa
To stop/avoid military coup de tat. After independence there were series of military coups that intended to overthrow the new African government that was formed after independence. The following were coups that were witnessed soon after independence
- Idd Amin Dada in Uganda 1971
- In Togo 1963 president Silvanus Olympius was assassinated
- In Ghana 1961,1972 and 1981
- In Nigeria 1983 and 1985
Avoidance of political opposition from other parties, soon after independence most African states expected to have peace and political stability for the national development so they decided to adopt one party system in order to avoid political opposition of other parties as they thought that having multiparty system the national development could be threatened.
Avoidance of civil wars among the Africans, since in multiparty system every party struggle to dominate political power, something that cause political instabilities for it was viewed as a tool to divide masses basing on their ethnic origin that may result into civil conflicts. For example in Rwanda and Burundi the Tutsi fought the Hutu in for the domination of political powers. In Uganda 1980’s Yoweri Museveni conducted guerilla war against Milton Obote by forming “the National Resistance Movement”. The immediate changes were to be made to ensured political stability in African countries.
To avoid the imperialist influence on local politics, since the multiparty system emerged from imperialist nations thus most of African states after independence decided to reject it turning to single party system as they thought that having multiparty system could enable foreign influence into the local politics through passing in other political opposition parties as some former colonial power wanted to control their former colonies through opposition parties.
Promotion of good governance, they aimed at promoting good governance with political stability through checking out corruption and misallocation of public funds for example in Tanzania and Malawi.
The role of USSR, the socialist bloc played a big role to the changes of political ideology and administrative system in most of the African states. Since many African countries adopted Marxist ideology that based on socialist ideology resulted to the formation of single party system. For example the leader of socialist bloc encouraged the formation of workers party.
Support from socialist states, many African states that adopted socialism after independence received moral and material support from socialist states like China and Russia.
Bad perception towards capitalist ideology, many of the independent African states viewed capitalism as mode of production that is based on exploitation of the recourses and masses thus they decided to adopt socialism as it was discouraging exploitation
Generally in the system of administration they aimed at eradicating the racial discrimination by upholding African dignity in the system of administration. As after independence Africans states changed their political ideology so as to set up a new system of administration under their own direction and control whereby every African would be treated equally with dignity under the single party system
Political and administrative system took place in Africa after independence
Most African independent states undergo changes in the political and administrative system through adoption of the following government system
- One party system, the post independence Africans allowed one political party and avoided competing politics. The party in power dominated the government and controlled the state apparatus and other spheres of human activities outside politics. But in 1990sone party system began to collapse especially after the fall of USSR.
- Multiparty system, after the collapse of one party system African independent states adopted multiparty system especially during 1990s
- Military rule, independent Africans after few years adopted military rule and they came under the control of military rule for example in Egypt, Sudan and Uganda.
- Parliamentary system, eg. Kenya
- Presidential system, eg. Tanzania
- Federal system of government eg. Nigeria
Political ideological adopted after independence
African countries adopted different political ideologies after independence. Some countries adopted varieties of political ideologies including;
- Liberal democracy, implying that they adopted capitalism example of such countries included Kenya, Nigeria and Ivory Coast.
- Socialism, the countries that adopted socialism included Tanzania, Ghana, Uganda and Zambia.
- Afro-Marxism, the countries adopted this ideology included Somalia, Ethiopia under Mengistu, Mozambique and Angola among other countries.
- Single party system.
This was introduction of one party system to replace the multiparty system inherited Independence.
In Tanganyika the decision to create single party system reached in TANU- NEC of 1963 and 1965 the constitution was amended and constitution was amended and Tanzania became officially single party countries. Also in Uganda mono-party system were introduced in 1963.
Reasons for the introduction of Single Party System.
- Promotion of Unity; single party system promotes unity among the people. Many parties disunited people and even brought conflicts among the people based on religion, region or ethnic considerations.
- The rise of new ideologies; many African countries adapted socialism after independence. Socialistic ideology favored centralization of administrative power in the hands of single party. African countries opted for socialism which was seen to be less exploitative and it insisted on single party
- To reduce colonial interests; It was introduced to eliminate political parties that showed interest to protect colonialism during the struggles for independence e.g. U.T.P in Tanganyika allied with British leaders feared that such parties would overthrow the government of newly independent nation.
- To eliminate western culture; the multiparty system inherited after independence had western elements (culture) which existed in Britain, France Germany and France. Africans had no experience of having many political parties as they were used to African traditional culture of being led by single leaders. Single party were similar to African traditional culture where Africans were ruled by one king/ chief
- Power monger; Greedy for power among few African leaders who wanted to rule for many years without being taken out of the post by political party. Some few African leaders wanted toremain inpower for long period. They feared that multiparty could increase competition for leadership.
- Promote development of all people; people’s effort be concentrated in development rather than in politics. Promote equitable development in the country as all people all over the country belong to the same party.
Reasons for the fall of Mono- Party System.
- Strong opposition from the people. People opposed the system of mono-party which worked against democracy and human rights e.g. Right to vote, right of expression and association.
- The collapse of U.S.S.R (United Soviet Socialist Republic) in 1990’s.
- Introduction of IMF conditionality such as trade liberalization, privatization and multipartism neccessited the changes in Africa.
- Donor countries such as USA, British, and Germany didn’t support the system.
- Economic decline in most countries with single party system in 1970s and 1980s.
- The rise of USA as a sole super power.
- Military rule governments
Military government is a form of government where soldiers/ military took over control of the government instead of elected civilians.
The process where by a group of Military/soldiers took over the control of the government is called “coup d’état”. Coup d’état is a French term which means “overthrow of the state”. A number of African countries came under Military rule within a few years after independence e.g. Egypt in 1952, Sudan in 1956, Nigeria 1966 and Uganda 1971.
Reasons for Military rule/coup d’état political instability just few years
- Weak political parties which failed to defy the ruling government learning the Military as the only organ that can defy the government. As, African governments inherited a weak political system from the colonial masters. Therefore, the first African government did not have the capacity to govern effectively. Military leaders afraid that their countries would fall apart politically, decided to overthrow the existing weak governments that they could do a better job of governing.
- Colonial legacy. Most colonial government did not leave behind African political system capable of running stable government.
- Corruption and embezzlement of public funds by the African presidents who took over after independence. This made the army to take over.
- Lack of National unity; colonialists put together different tribes to create modern Africa. This made it difficult to form unity with such diverse tribes.
- This created conflict hence army to take over e.g. Hutu and Tutsi of Rwanda.
- The policy of divide and rule imposed by colonialist created divided society.
The Strengths, Weaknesses and Contribution of Political, Ideological and Administrative Changes in the Newly Independent African States
Assess critically the strengths, weaknesses and contribution of political, ideological and administrative changes in the newly independent African states
Development of African independent political system different from those of colonialists inherited at independence. The political system developed was characterized by democracy for example in Tanzania the socialist system of government enabled her to involve more citizens in government, unlike during the colonial era for African leaders now determined the fate of their own people‟s political features.
African cooperation, Opportunities to cooperate and undertake various measures to advance the interests of the continent this was due to the fact that African leaders were able to negotiate with western nations more aggressively than during the colonial times when they were treated as subjects. For example under the regional organizations in the OAU they introduced several measures to uplift the welfare of their citizens.
Africans were able to collaborate with other less developed countries especially in the NonAligned Movements
Eradication of racial discrimination and uphold African dignity in the system of administration through running their own government.
Promotion of African democracy,Liberal democracy through open competition for power between different political parties , separation of power between the three pillars of government namely the executive, the legislature and the judiciary
Pressure groups and associations like trade unions are allowed to operate without political harassment from the government.
Minimization of the gap between the poor and the rich, Less exploitation of workers by foreigners and the African merchants as the government controlled provision of most basic services
Promotion of national unity by minimizing conflicts based on ethnic, regional or religious consideration as all people work hard.
Weaknesses of political, ideological and administrative changes in the newly independent African states
Civil wars most African countries have experienced civil wars since independence for example Ugandan civil war lasted from the late 1970s to 1986 when president Yowel Kaguta Museveni took control of the country. Also in Rwanda in 1994 during the genocide which killed over 800,000 people. However currently several civil wars are still being experienced in the DRC and Somalia.
Military coups d‟état have been experienced in many African countries including Nigeria, Sudan, Libya, Ghana, Somalia, Ethiopia, Liberia, Mauritania and Guinea.
Ethnic affiliation most African citizens in political appointment and voting during general elections try to pick a person from their ethnic groups or religion as a leader in the hope that such a leader would reciprocate by rewarding or giving them favors, this led to bitterness between different communities, clans and religion in Africa something that resulting to civil wars
Neo colonialism through partnership with developed countries, for example former colonial masters such as Britain and France continue to interfere in the political affairs of African governments.
Financial problem,Services provision such as education, health services and other services became a great financial burden for governments.
Contribution of political, ideological and administrative changes in the newly independent African states
Nationalism struggle African governments were able to assist fellow African countries to acquire political independence from colonial masters. For example the efforts had done by other African governments in South Africa and Namibia.
National building, Training of African citizens to undertake nation-building activities this changes facilitated mobilization of African states to participate in national building activities. For example the harambee spirit in Kenya was used to mobilize funds to construct schools, health centers and other social facilities in order to uplift the living standards of African citizens.
Opportunities of African countries to participate more in the activities of regional, continental and international bodies like the United Nations Organizations and the NonAlignment Movements.
The Factors which led to Changes in Economic Developmental Policies and Strategies
Explain the factors which led to changes in economic developmental policies and strategies
After independence many African states experienced economic problems which inherited from colonialism as colonialist aimed at maximizing profits and minimizing costs as a result they applied different policies that left African states with economic problem hence the changes in political, social and economic sector was inevitable. Among of the factors that necessitated the changes of economic development policies and strategies after independence involves the problems inherited
Economic and social factors
Economic crises, the colonial government left African states with economic crises due to intensive exploitation of African resources both human resources and material resources. For example the exportation of raw materials like agricultural materials and minerals and importing expensive manufactured goods.
Inadequate infrastructures, most of African independent states experienced inadequate of infrastructures such as schools, hospitals transport networks since the colonialists failed to provide it in every region hence there were regional imbalance development. For example there were no regional roads or railway links between one region from another as most of the transport network developed around the turn of the country to facilitate exportation of raw materials from Africa and importation of manufactured goods from Europe. Not only that but also the few infrastructure built needed repair hence the need for changes of economic and strategies so as to copy with the situation.
Economic stratification in the society, after independence there were two classes that of the peasants who lived in rural areas living in miserable poverty as they depended on agriculture activities which had low prices and the other class of bourgeoisie or working class lived in towns in a good standard of leaving compared to the peasants in the rural areas. For example around 95% of the populations were rural dwellers depended on agriculture for survival and only 5% the working class who lived in towns. Thus the need for economic changes to help the majority who lived in miserable poverty
Dependency economy, after independence most of the African states characterized by dependent economy as they did not produce what they consume and consume what they did not produce. For example they produced raw materials and exported it to the European nations especially to their former colonial masters and consumed finished goods that imported from Europe. Following this situation there was the need for economic changes.
Inadequate industries, African independent states experienced deindustrialization this was due to the fact that the colonialists prepared Africa as potential market for European goods that is why they did not industrialize Africa. Following this after independence African states started to change the economic strategy as a result they could industrialize.
Cultural dependence, the independent Africans wanted to develop their national culture through abandoning the foreign culture that was established by the colonialist before independence.
Administration centralization, the colonialist left Africa with highly centralized administration system whereby central leader had got a lot of power in the state as a result such system brought inefficient and incompetence leaders and misdirection in administration. Hence there was a need to change political system.
Existence of relationship between military structures and political administration, the military structures was organized in the way that it was not separated from political administration this resulted to the rise of coup de-tat for example political juntas took over the political arena resulted to political instability and economic sabotage.
Tribalism among the Africans, after the independence most of African states experienced tribalism which influenced by multiparty political system as most of the states were based on the personal ethnic or regional origin of a particular politician, therefore this situation necessitated political changes.
Foreign administration structure, after independence national planning remained in the hand of foreigners not only that but also most of the important sector like financial and military sectors. Whereby foreigners were involved in political issues
The Economic Development Policies and Strategies Adopted in Africa after Independence
African countries after independence adopted different economic development and strategies for the aim of accelerating economic development through heavy infusion of capital investment either private, bilateral or both. The following are common economic strategies adopted by African countries after independence.
Economic strategies adopted after independence
Establishment of parastatals African governments established different bodies in order to curtail the control of the African economies by foreigners and the relative weaknesses of domestic capitalism. For example generation and transmission of electricity, telecommunications, railways, postal and banking services
Establishment of schemes such as agricultural schemes aiming at promoting agricultural developments and settlement schemes for the aiming to provide landless citizens with adequate land; for example in Tanzania there was villagization policy was part of this strategy while in Kenya land settlement schemes established in the former white settlers farms.
Authority and power delegation soon after independence particularly in 1960s and 1970s African countries delegated authorities from higher levels to lower levels of government especially to provinces and districts for example Chilalu Agricultural Development Unity (CADU) in Ethiopia, Lilongwe Land Development Program (LLDP) in Malawi, the Special Rural Development Program (SRDP) in Kenya and Intensive Development Zones (IDZ) in Zambia.
Development planning this involved setting targets to be achieved within a set period usually based on five years plan.
Economic blueprint facilitated donor countries to support development projects and achieving political support from the public.
Establishment of import substitution industries in different African countries in order to promote industrialization, expand employment opportunities and build African economies through exports.
The strengths of the economic policies and strategies adopted in Africa after independence
Achieving in measures of economic development especially many socialist countries; for example Tanzania under Julius. K. Nyerere and Ghana under Nkwame Nkurumah advocated self sufficiency in food production.
Improvement of infrastructures soon after independence most African countries was having inadequate and poor infrastructures like roads, railways and ports so they decided to improve them.
Expansion of industries resulted by establishment of import substitution industries as an economic planning with a view of improving and builds African economies through exports.
Mobilization of Africans to participate in development following adoption of socialist policy which required Africans to take charge of their economies for example the Ujamaa village in Tanzania was useful in enhancing mobilization.
Establishment of training institutions with the view of training African public servants in different fields in order to take part in development of their countries.
Weaknesses of the economic policies and strategies adopted in Africa after independence
Corruption and inefficiency of public servants or government officials this was due to the fact that the new public officers were not well acquainted with administrative responsibilities. For example in 1990s the government of Kenya lost over 5.8 billion Kenya shillings because of high level of corruption involving senior officials in government offices. Similar incident happened in Tanzania in 2007 where a number of senior officials were forced to resign because of high level of corruption involving generation of electric power in the country
Establishment of settlement schemes in marginal lands and away from infrastructures like roads and urban centers this hindered the implementation of agricultural strategies.
Emergence of a wide gap between the rich and the poor in the country particularly in the countries that adopted capitalist ideology for example in Kenya some parts like urban centers and Nairobi attained more economic development than other parts like the Coast Province, North Eastern and some parts of the lift valley provinces. Not only that but also foreigners owned a lot of wealth in the country and repatriated a lot of profits back to their own countries as the system allowed for capital accumulation.
Contributions of the economic policies and strategies adopted in Africa after independence
Economic growth facilitated by adoption and implementation of various economic policies and strategies in the country. For example agricultural production increased because of the need to produce more cash crops for exports, industrial raw materials and food self sufficiency.
Establishment of new industries for processing raw materials and manufacturing goods
Establishment of dams for supplying hydroelectric power in the country; for example in Tanzania dams like Mtera playing an important role of supplying hydroelectric powers in the country
Employment opportunities this created by foreign investment especially in capitalist economies like Kenya and Ivory Coast.
Infrastructure development most African countries established and improved infrastructures in the countries for example in Tanzania a new railway line was established that connected the country to Zambia through the assistance of Chinese government.
Africanization of the economy done by both socialist and capitalist countries, helped to bring businesses which were formally controlled by foreigners under the control of the indigenous people.
Value of agricultural activities most of African governments especially in socialist countries like Tanzania made an attempt to recognize agriculture by grouping small household farms in villages and encouraging collective production.
Establishment of new state-owned bodies or enterprises in different countries in the continent through state driven development for example by 1985 there were over 400 state-owned corporations in Tanzania
Changes in provision of education in Africa after independence
After political independence many African states inherited the colonial education system which was contrary to their local education system and their environments. As time went on African independent states adopted the policy of educational expansion and education was considered as a human rights. Following this the number of education institutions like schools and colleges were increased and the system of curricular were modeled. Not only that but also all the education policies focused on re addressing the weakness and objectives of the nation.
Objectives of education in Africa after independence
Provision of relevant education to the Africans, independent African states recognized the weakness of the colonial education as it was irrelevant and inadequate in terms of meeting the needs and requirement of the newly created states. Hence they ensured the education provided was relevant to the demands of African countries.
To eradicate education dependence, the African independent states aimed at eradicating the dependence on the European powers so they decided to review the education policy so as to make it suit the African context.
To eradicate tribalism and racism in Africa, this was due to the fact that the colonialists had already planted the seeds of racism in education system as there were classes in education following this the changes in education system after independence was necessary so as to eradicate the racism and tribalism in Africa.
To promote African cultural values, this was more important since the African cultural values were neglected by the colonialists through glorifying and practicing the white’s culture which they viewed as superior than that of the Africans, therefore this situation necessitated the changes in order to promote the African cultural values.
Generally the education brought by the Africans aimed at unifying people national wide, promoting economic development, self r9eliance, social justice, equity and scientific literacy.
The Features of Education in Africa after Independence
Appraise the features of education in Africa after independence
Expansion of secondary and higher education, e.g. by 1966 enrollment in higher education in east Africa had increased almost three times.
Training of local staffs, the African independent focused on training the local staffs to replace the European expatriates as they were supposed to leave the African continent free governing themselves.
Provision of academic education, since during the colonialism Africans were usually provided with vocational training due to existence of racial discrimination following this African independent state made great efforts to acquire academic education
Expansion of primary education, independent African countries expanded primary education under Universal Primary Education (UPE) program, whereby the government adopted this and soon shifted emphasis from provision of high level skills to basic education. For example in Tanzania the government took various measures to expand primary schools especially from 1973 to 1977.
Provision of free education, many independent African nations provided free education to all school age children who are supposed to be enrolled in primary education. Thus the education was made free of charges as there was no payment of school fees and it was compulsory to all school aged children. This was practiced for the aim of enabling access to education for all Africans.
Revision of curriculum, after independence the curriculum was revised so as to ensure its relevance to the learners. For example in Tanzania there was emphasis on the history of Tanzania, elimination of selection process. Not only that but also teachers training and establishment of new classrooms.
Introduction of education for self reliance, after independence schools were advised to put emphasis on useful values such as equality, honest responsibility, cooperation and community involvement rather than focusing on academics only. A good example for this is Tanzania under socialist ideology.
Curriculum integration, the African schools were asked to integrate work into the curriculum as results students/children could appreciate the value of the manual work.
Emphasis on adult education, since after independence there were a large number of illiterate adults so the education institutions with the support of government emphasized on adult education.
Strengths of education in Africa after independence
- Expansion of enrollments in both primary and secondary schools.
- Freedom of teaching African cultural values and history to the students.
- Development of universities in Africa. E.g. in east Africa there was Makerere University, Nairobi University and the University of Dar es salaam.
- Reduction of dependence education on outside expatriates.
- Improvements of University education in Africa through collaboration between African universities and metro pole universities following the quality of education are being harmonized.
- The increase of literacy rate in African countries following the compulsory and free education program. E.g. in Nigeria the rate of illiteracy rise.
- Expansion of education facilities due to citizen support. E.g. the Harambee or self-help effort in Kenya.
Weaknesses in the expansion of education in Africa after independence
- Inadequate resources to meet the growing demand resulted by large enrolment in primary schools under universal primary education (UPE). Such resources are classes, desks, laboratories, libraries, books and teachers.
- Lacks of experience on vocational courses, the academic teachers was having no experiences in teaching practical courses like agricultural courses.
- Problems in using English language in secondary and higher education as medium of instruction this is due to the use of Kiswahili language as a medium of communication in primary schools as a result student failed to communicate in English when they are in higher education.
- Gender gap, most of African literacy were men this inherited from colonialism where girls were left aside without enrolled in school as a result even after independence there were higher rate of illiteracy among women than men especially in the higher levels of education.
- Under development in higher educational institutions especially from 1980’s due to provision of inadequate resources to support higher education for example lack of enough library materials and laboratory equipment since independence.
- Unemployment, most of the university graduates was facing the problem of being unemployed due to few employment opportunities.
- Shortage of teachers, especially after independence this was due to higher enrolment of pupils in primary schools and few teachers training colleges existed.
Changes in the Provision of Health Services after Independence in Africa
The health care facilities of most African countries were inherited from colonialism that were used to care the Europeans and civil servants and few and poor medical facilities caring the ordinary citizens. Most of them were allocated in urban areas unlike in villages especially in capital cities.
In fact most of Africans preferred traditional medicines offered by the traditional doctors in their communities. This was due to the fact that imported medicines from overseas provided in a modern hospital were very expensive t the extent that most Africans could not afford them.
After independence the dominant diseases that affected people to the large extent were bilharzias, malaria, typhoid, polio, measles, cholera, tuberculosis.
In Tanzania health services have been provided by the government, national parastatal agencies, and churches, local and international voluntary agencies. Government put more emphasis was to rural areas through funds allocation as health centers and dispensaries were established.
Objectives of provision of health services after independence
- To uplift the standard of living of the people
- To promote the health of the people
- Expanding health facilities for the citizens
- Reduction of imbalance in the provision of health facilities between urban and rural areas
- To stop the high infant mortality rate and high maternal death rate during child birth
Features of health services in Tanzania after independence
- It is provided by the government, churches, local and international voluntary agencies.
- It is based on benefiting rural areas and support for preventive rather than curative aspects of health services
- It emphasizes on the need to provide basic needs including housing, water supply and healthcare
- Allocation of more fund in the provision of health services by the government
- Provision of health services free of charge until the 1980’s
- Introduction of user charges in the government hospitals after 1980’s
Strengths of provision of health services in Africa after independence
- Expansion of health facilities like hospitals, dispensaries and health equipments has been expanded through constructional activities and provision of health equipments.
- Provision of health services in both urban and rural areas for example most hospitals were allocated in urban centers while most of dispensaries were allocated in rural areas so as to delivery health services to the people of urban and rural areas.
- Training of African health personnel who take charge of the health sectors in the countries. For example medical doctors, nurses and other caregivers.
- Eradication of epidemic diseases that existed in Africa for a long time this was done through the provision of vaccines for diseases like polio and measles.
- Establishment of many medical training institutions for example medical training centers and universities for training health practitioners.
- Establishment of research centers I most African countries with a view to investigate causes of certain ailments and seeking for the cure.
- Adoption of alternative medicines to tackle health problems.
- Reduction of infant mortality rate.
Weaknesses in the provision of health services in Africa after independence
- Lack of human resources, especially well trained health personnel this is due to the fact that during colonial rule many Africans were not trained by the colonialists.
- Corruption, most of the civil servants in health sector are not faithful as they had been practicing corruption through selling of government funded medicines at a throwaway price to unscrupulous business people something that result to suffering among the populations.
- Inadequate financial resources, most of African countries experience lack of enough funds to provide quality health services to whole country free or at low cost following this access to personnel health care has therefore remained the privilege of a few people in society. For example rural areas are neglected as good services are mainly available in the urban centers.
- Poor planning and lack of resources to support the provision of health services, for example poor provision of infrastructure, clean water and transport has affected the delivery of health services.
- Dependency on donor funding who provide conditions to the African countries under Structural Adjustment Programs. For example the introduction of cost sharing policy discouraged many poor people from seeking good medical attention.
- Failure to research on local traditional medicines has led African governments to spend a lot of resources in buying medicines from other parts of the world.
- Existence of incurable diseases like HIV/AIDS, cancer and diabetes has created heavy burden to most African countries since they require a lot of financial resources and time in caring. For example by the end of 1980’s over six million people had been infected in the continent
Achievements in the provision of water services in Africa after independence
- Establishment of water infrastructures for example water pipes
- Establishment of water treatment plants to treat clean water and supply it to the areas with no clean and safe water
- Building of dams for water preservation in rural areas for human being and their animals
- Protection of water resources through reforestation to preserve water resources.
- Provision of education to the mass advising them to boil drinking water in order to avoid water transmitted diseases like typhoid.
- Licensing companies to provide clean bottled water to citizens in order to reduce drinking unsafe water
Changes in the Provision of Housing Services after Independence
Since 1960s most African countries were experiencing population increase especially in urban areas, as a result most countries found it very hard to cope with the demands created by the new development. For example it became difficult to meet the basic services like provision of water, housing and health services.
The patterns of housing distributions after independence
- The best and quality houses in the continent have been in the main urban centers such as Nairobi, Mombasa, Harare and Dar es Salaam.
- Soon after independence the best houses in urban centers was owned by or inhabited by the European and Asian communities, while most African communities occupy the poorly constructed houses.
- Expansion of slum areas in African countries, for example Kibera in Nairobi and Soweto in South Africa slum areas has been common.
- Mark of the main urban centers in the cities was skyscrapers and tall building.
- Rapid growth of African population in main urban centers and in smaller towns especially among the low income groups all over the continent soon after independence. For example in Dar es salaam population growth rate rose by 14% between 1957 and 1967.
- Urban areas was characterizing by haphazard planning while in rural areas characterized by houses constructed using local materials.
Steps taken to change the colonial patterns of housing distribution in Tanzania after independence
After independence the government of Tanzania did not have a systematic policy on how to deal with the challenges of urban growth however the following measures were taken to improve housing distribution in Tanzania after independence.
- Control of building and land strategy so as to alleviate pressure on urban housing and community services, through creation of new residential areas and prohibiting residential in some areas which are densely populated.
- Establishment of National Housing Corporation (NHC) for the aim of providing housing needs through financing. Furthermore NHC took over the management of the low cost houses which had been put up by the local government in Dar es Salaam and put up new houses after clearing part of the squatter settlement in the capital city.
- Control of land allocation in the country by the government, especially those freehold lands reverted to government ownership and previous owner were expected to pay rent to the government. Conditions on development of land in urban areas were laid down to all. However priority on plot allocation, site and services schemes was given to low income areas in the urban centers.
- Decentralization of the number of functions with the aim of locating new industries away from capital cities like Dar es Salaam. Also minimization of resource allocation to urban development for the sake of spreading benefits to all classes.
- To stimulate development by relocating the capital city from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma300miles (480 km) west. This was a plan announced by the government in 1973.
- To emphasize on the need of making use of low cost materials for construction purposes to provide housing for more people rather than following international standards blindly.
Challenges facing the provision of housing services after independence
- Inadequate of qualified human resources, for example lack of skilled personnel like town planners to help in planning and implementing the desired programs in most African countries. Following this there were slow pace in the implementation of housing projects as a result 70% of low income housing in Dar es Salaam was part of the slum clearing projects.
- Ignoring the low income earners by giving the priority to the middle income earners while low income earners getting disadvantaged at the project implementation stage.
- Inadequate financial resources, the government expected and depended much overseas funding for the project of the housing programs. Following this most of the medium sized construction firms died as they depended on investments in higher income residential properties.
- Bias in fund allocation, more taxpayers’ money was used to fund establishment of better housing for the middle class in society and less funds were allocated for the housing of the poor.
- Lack of commitment among the government officers especially in the middle income cadres who did not embrace some of the new policies this was due to insufficient training among the political leaders and the government officials responsible for the implementation of the projects in the most countries.
- Financial irregularities in the National Housing Corporation due to the fact that most beneficiaries of the new housing schemes were unable to pay their rents to the NHC thereby undermining its efficiency. For example in 1976 a number of NHC employees including the general manager were terminated due to financial irregularities.
- Unnecessary bureaucratic procedures for one to get funds for house construction as the procedures could take several years for one to be funded this undermined the projects development.
- The use of expensive and unsustainable house design and materials as a result most countries failed to be innovative in designing house for the low income earners in the continent.
Achievements of housing distribution after independence
After independence the government succeeded on the following;
- Reduction of inequalities in the income between the highest and the lowest income earners through provision of reasonable houses by local authorities in different countries.
- Decentralization of development for the promotion of development in other parts of the country. For example in Tanzania decentralization was made when Dodoma became the new capital city of Tanzania.
- Owning of homes in urban centers by the majority through sites and service schemes in Kenya and Tanzania.
- Provision of employment opportunities for Africans through establishment of new housing schemes. For example they provided plumbing, carpentry, electrical installation and other important services to the residents.
- Provision of new investment opportunities to many people due to expansion of the housing markets. For example the investment was made through establishment of high class hotels, tourism centers, commodities modernization, airports and importation of luxury commodities for the benefits of tourists from western countries.
Establishment of National Military and National Legal Institutions
After independence, African governments established their own armed forces and police for the purpose of ensuring security. Tanzania established her own military force called Tanzania People’s Defense Forces on 1st September 1964. It comprised of four branches namely
- ) Land Forces Command
- ) Naval Command
- ) Air Force Command
- ) Military Intelligence
Objectives of establishing national armed forces
- To provide assistance during national emergencies
- To participate in nation building activities
- Promotion of internal security and integrity
- To protect the country from external aggression
- To detect and fighting off criminals
- To ensure peace in the country
Functions of the national armed forces
- To safeguard the national security of the country from external aggression. For example Tanzania military force took part in the military campaign against the forces of Idd Amin of Uganda in 1978. Similarly to Kenyan military force took part in campaigns against the Shift bandits from Somalia in the 1970’s.
- To preserve internal security. For example Kenya in 1978 during the attempt coup d’etat when Kenya Army fought off some elements of the rebel Kenya Air Force who wanted to take over the government using unlawful means.
- To participate in nation-building activities for example road and bridge construction.
- To provide assistance to the public during national emergencies. For example during floods, famine, fire outbreaks and other national disasters.
- To detect and fight off criminals who use water masses like the Atlantic and Indian Ocean to commit crimes. For example the Somali pirates, narcotic runners and gunrunners as well as illegal trawlers who steal fish and other marine resources from African states.
- To participate in peace keeping missions in different parts of the world by participating in United National, African Union and Commonwealth peacekeeping duties.
Strengths of national military forces in Africa after independence
- A lot of military personnel in recent years have been enrolled in institutions for higher education and have improved their image while relating with members of the public.
- Safeguarding the national security of the country from external aggression.
- Preserving internal security.
- Participating in peace keeping missions within and outside the country.
- Participating in nation-building activities
- Assisting the public during national emergencies.
- Detecting and fighting off criminals
Weaknesses of national military forces in Africa after independence
- To abort coup attempts and overthrowing their governments
- Corruption in the running of operations for example military officers from Zimbabwe was accused for having smuggled gold and other mineral resources during peacekeeping operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
- Tribalism and sectionalism
- Inadequate funds for soldiers payments
- Indiscipline for example some soldiers have been accused of looting and raping civilians.
- Lack of financial resources and modern military equipments
- Dependence from developed countries for example some African countries depend on European and USA countries in training and equipping their armies.
- Low level of education the majority of the military personnel were not well educated in Africa for a long time due to the fact that military career was not taken as a prestigious occupation
National legal institutions
The national legal institutions include judiciary however; there is close coordination of different departments in the government in making sure that the law and order are preserved without denying anyone his or her rights in society. This can be witnessed through their different functions in the country. For example when the police force and the armed forces ensure preservation of national security and integrity the judiciary ensures the administration of justice through the court of law
Objectives of the national legal institutions
- To settle disputes among different parties
- To guarantee rule of law for all citizens
- Assisting in the law development
- Constitution protection
- Administering justice in the country
- To swear in senior members of government like the prime ministers and presidents
Functions of the national legal institutions
- They settle disputes among individuals and between the individuals and the state.
- They administer justice through law interpretation
- They spell out the penalties to be meted out to offenders and the amount to be compensated to the offended part.
- They ensure citizen’s protection under the law and to sentence accordingly those who violate the rights and freedoms of others.
- They protect the national constitution by ensuring that everything in the country is done within the constitutional provisions in each country
- They safeguard national sovereignty through swearing in of senior members of government.
Strengths of the national legal institutions
- They are based on equality and fairness of all the parties
- Training of legal officers in different countries
- They guarantee the justice for all the parties
- The legal system is flexible and embraces some of the traditional methods of conflict resolution. For example Islamic courts are given rooms to handle cultural and religious matters in African legal systems with a large population of Muslims.
Weaknesses of the national legal institutions
- Some of them are corrupt for example in Kenya many magistrates and judges lost their jobs in2003 following allegations of corruption.
- Incompetence of some judiciary officers who fail to prioritize important issues in the legal system and underfunding of the institutions
- Interference of some senior members of the executive in the work of legal institution thereby undermining administration of justice in the state.
- Illiteracy and ignorance of the citizens hampered the efficiency in the administration justice by legal institutions.
- Dependence on other government departments like armed force and police force as they cannot operate efficiently in the absence of support from these departments.
- Lack of financial resources to hire enough officers to assist in the administration of judiciary.
- Interference of cultural traditions in the operations of the legal institutions as some community applies cultural methods of administration of justice, some of which contradict the official legal institutions for example traditional forms of compensation or avenging crime among clans
The Social, Political and Economic Problems Hindering Development in Africa after Independence
Illiteracy, Africans experiencing illiteracy since some people are unable to read or write, this is attributed by some of the cultural traditions of the people and sometimes failure of government to provide conducive environment for schooling. For example failure to provide enough educational facilities like school infrastructures for the communities has made it difficult for some children to access schooling.
Diseases, African countries since independence have been experiencing diseases both cured and uncured resulted by environmental pollution, poor sanitation and poor hygiene, careless in eating habits, poverty and ignorance. Examples of the serious disease that affect African people include malaria, dysentery, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Following this most people loose lives unnecessarily especially in the rural areas where health centers are few.
Religious differences some African country experienced serious religious differences that led to religious wars and country division. For example in Nigeria and Sudan some of the Islamic groups have advocated for the introduction of sharia or Islamic law in some parts of the country while Christian and African traditional religions therefore this intensified conflict in such countries.
Fear and insecurity, some African people are forced to flee from their homes and rendered refugees due to several factors including electoral disputes, land and water resources conflicts. Since these people flee from one African country to another within the continent this led to highest number of refugees in African continent than other continent, For example in eastern Africa there are millions of refugees from Burundi, DRC Congo, Sudan and Somalia, living in refugees camps in neighboring countries
Tribalism in Africa attributed by different factors some of them include language differences and colonial policy of divide and rule this contributed to political animosity and civil wars. For example in Nigeria, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Ivory Coast and Uganda there are serious political divisions, civil wars, displacement of people and death due to tribalism.
Regionalism in some African countries some parts of the regions have experienced faster development than other areas hence disunity. For example in Sudan some parts of southern experiences great poverty while northern parts is more developed, following this there has been a very serious civil war that was that was fought from the 1980s to 2011.
Political instabilities caused by disputes over electoral outcomes, land resources and sharing of government positions. This has hampered political unity to many African countries and resulted to lack of economic progress, loss of life and properties and displacement of people.eg civil wars
Abortive coup attempt and overthrow of governments due to several challenges within the country including economy mismanagement, sectionalism, corruption, nepotism, violation of human rights and tribalism for example in Nigeria the coups against the prime minister Abubakar Tawafa Balewa while in Uganda Idd Amin overthrew the government of Militon Obote in 1971.
Neo-colonialism resulted to ideological differences among the political leaders and political disunity which hampered unity between African countries. For example in Democratic Republic of Congo, several political readers were unhappy because Patrice Lumumba the prime minister adopted socialism and in Kenya the president Jomo Kenyatta adopted capitalism while his vice president supported socialism.
Poverty is experienced in African countries due to the failure of governments to allocate resources equitably and to provide development infrastructures such as schools, roads, electricity as well as economic exploitation of certain regions of the country.
Mismanagement of public resources for one’s benefits or for the benefits of one’s friends or associates for personal gain or favors for example land have been grabbed by corrupt government officials and civil servants thus undermining the economy. This problem has been prevalent in Nigeria, Kenya and Burundi where a high level of corruption has been reported for many years.
Successes of the measures taken to solve problems hindering development in Africa
Multi party system has promoted democracy and government accountabilities as well as helped to reduce abuse of powers and corruption among African political leaders within the continent.
Respect and adhering constitutional requirements especially in political issues like elections
Promotion of gender mainstreaming programs in order to allow women and girls to advance politically, economically and socially since now day women are no longer sidelined in political activities in Africa. For example Liberia is led by President Ellen Johnson-Sir leaf, a lady while Tanzania’s speaker of the parliament is also a woman honorable Anne Makinda.
Regional economic organizations contributing to political achievements in African countries through ECOWAS, SADC and EAC for example, African Union has played an important role in enhancing political stability by condemning electoral irregularities and condemning military takeovers in the continent as well as has participated in peace keeping operation in Darfur and Somalia since 2009.
Improvement of social arena through saving retirees and those retrenched from work due to ill health from experiencing serious financial problems. For example in Kenya the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) have both played a key role in uplifting the life the poorer members of the society. Similar program have also been instituted in Uganda and Tanzania.
Improvement of education system through adoption of different educational policy like Universal Primary Education (UPE), Education for All (EFA), Primary and Secondary development programs (SEDP & PEDP) all of these aim to fight illiteracy in the society.
Enhancement of economic stabilities and reducing dependency on foreign donor through establishment of revenue collection bodies; For example Tanzania Revenue Authority, Uganda Revenue Authority and Kenya Revenue Authority.
African states stability through setting up of regional organizations for example Uganda is the most important trading partner of Kenya.
ARUSHA DECLARATION WILL BE DISCUSSED IN GROUPS
By January Mbifile, History Teacher
Marian Gilrs 0756527718